Dyadic play fighting occurs in many species, but only humans are known to engage in coalitional play fighting. Dyadic play fighting is hypothesized to build motor skills involved in actual dyadic fighting; thus, coalitional play fighting may build skills involved in actual coalitional fighting, operationalized as forager lethal raiding. If human psychology includes a motivational component that encourages engagement in this type of play, evidence of this play in forager societies is necessary to determine that it is not an artifact of agricultural or industrial conditions. We examine whether coalitional play fighting appears in the hunter-gatherer record and includes motor skills used in lethal raiding. Using the ethnographic record, we generated a list of motor patterns regularly used in forager warfare. Then, using Murdock’s Ethnographic Atlas, we identified 100 culture clusters containing forager societies and searched the ethnographic records of these societies for descriptions of coalitional play fighting, operationalized as contact games played in teams. Resulting games were coded for the presence of eight motor patterns regularly used in forager lethal raiding. Although play does not tend to be systematically documented in the hunter-gatherer literature, sufficiently detailed descriptions of coalitional play were found for 46 of the 100 culture clusters: all 46 exhibited coalitional play using at least one of the predicted motor patterns; 39 exhibited coalitional play using four or more of the eight predicted motor patterns. These results provide evidence that coalitional play fighting (a) occurs across a diverse range of hunter-gatherer cultures and habitats, (b) regularly recruits motor patterns used in lethal raiding, and (c) is not an artifact of agricultural or industrial life. This is a first step in a new line of research on whether human male psychology includes motivations to engage in play that develops the deployment of coordinated coalitional action involving key motor patterns used in lethal raiding.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abreu de Galindo, Juan de (1767). Historia de la conquista de las siete islas de Gran Canaria. The history of the discovery and conquest of the Canary Islands: translated from a Spanish manuscript, lately found in the island of Palma. With an enquiry into the origin of the ancient inhabitants. To which is added, a description of the Canary Islands, including the modern history of the inhabitants by Capt. George Glas, 2 vols. London: A. Pope and J. Swift.
Anell, B. (1969). Running down and driving of game in North America. Studia Ethnographica Upsaliensia 30. Uppsala: Inst. för Allm. och Jämförande Etnografi.
Apostolou, M. (2015). The athlete and the spectator inside the man: A cross-cultural investigation of the evolutionary origins of athletic behavior. Cross-Cultural Research, 49(2), 151–173.
Apostolou, M., & Zacharia, M. (2015). The evolution of sports: Exploring parental interest in watching sports. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 1(3), 155–162.
Barclay, W. S. (1904). The Land of Magellanes, with some account of the Ona and other Indians. The Geographical Journal, 23(1), 62–79.
Barrett, H. C., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2007). The hominid entry into the cognitive niche. In S. W. Gangestad & J. A. Simpson (Eds.), Evolution of mind: Fundamental questions and controversies (pp. 241–248). New York: Guilford.
Batchelor, J. (1926). Ainu life and lore. Tokyo: Kyobunkwan.
Beck, B. B. (1980). Animal tool behavior: The use and manufacture of tools by animals. New York: Garland STPM Pub.
Benenson, J. F., & Wrangham, R. W. (2016). Cross-cultural sex differences in post-conflict affiliation following sports matches. Current Biology, 26(16), 2208–2212.
Biben, M. (1998). Squirrel monkey playfighting: Making the case for a cognitive training function for play. In M. Bekoff & J. A. Byers (Eds.), Animal play: Evolutionary, comparative, and ecological perspectives (pp. 161–182). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Biocca, E. (1970). Yanoáma: The narrative of a white girl kidnapped by Amazonian Indians. New York: Dutton.
Bird, D. & Bliege Bird, R. (2005). Martu children’s hunting strategies in the Western Desert, Australia. In B. Hewlett & M. Lamb (Eds.), Hunter-gatherer childhoods (pp. 29–46). Piscataway, NJ: Aldine Transaction.
Bjorklund, D. F., & Blasi, C. H. (2005). Evolutionary developmental psychology. In D. Buss (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology (pp. 828–850). Hoboken: Wiley.
Bock, J. (2005). What makes a competent adult forager? In B. Hewlett & M. Lamb (Eds.), Hunter-gatherer childhoods (pp. 109–128). Piscataway, NJ: Aldine Transaction.
Bock, J., & Johnson, S. (2004). Subsistence ecology and play among the Okavango Delta people of Botswana. Human Nature, 15, 63–81.
Bogoras, V. (1904–1909). The Chukchee. The Jessup North Pacific Expedition. Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History VII. New York: G. E. Stechert.
Bogoras, W. (1918). Tales of the Yukaghir, Lamut, and Russianized natives of eastern Siberia. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History XX, 1–148. New York: American Museum Press.
Boulton, M. & Smith, P. (1992). The social nature of play fighting and play chasing: Mechanisms and strategies underlying cooperation and compromise. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind (pp. 429–444). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bramble, D. M., & Lieberman, D. E. (2004). Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature, 432(7015), 345–352.
Brown, W.W. (1889). Some indoor and outdoor games of the Wabanaki Indians. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 6(2):35–55.
Brown, D. E. (1991). Human universals. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Burch, E. (2005). Alliance and conflict: The World System of the Iñupiaq Eskimos. Lincoln. University of Nebraska Press.
Burghardt, G. M. (2004) Play: How evolution can explain the most mysterious. In A. Moya & E. Font (Eds.), Evolution: From molecules to ecosystems (pp. 231–246). Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
Byers, J., & Walker, C. (1995). Refining the motor training hypothesis for the evolution of play. The American Naturalist, 146(1), 25–40.
Calvo-Merino, B., Glaser, D. E., Grèzes, J., Passingham, R. E., & Haggard, P. (2004). Action observation and acquired motor skills: An FMRI study with expert dancers. Cerebral Cortex, 15(8), 1243–1249.
Carrier, D. R. (1984). The energetic paradox of human running and hominid evolution [and comments and reply]. Current Anthropology, 25(4), 483–495.
Carver, J. (1796). Travels through the interior parts of North America, in the years 1766, 1767, and 1768, etc., with maps. Philadelphia: Key and Simpson.
Chagnon, N. (1997). Yąnomamö: The fierce people (fifth ed.). Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College.
Chase, A. W. (1869). Siletz, or “Lo” reconstructed. The Overland Monthly, 2, 424–441.
Chick, G., Loy, J. W., & Miracle, A. W. (1997). Combative sport and warfare: A reappraisal of the spillover and catharsis hypotheses. Cross-Cultural Research, 31(3), 249–267.
Connor, R. C., Smolker, R. A., & Richards, A. F. (1992). Dolphin alliances and coalitions. In A. Harcourt and F. B. M. de Waal (Eds.), Coalitions and alliances in humans and other animals (pp. 415-443). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Connor, R. C., Smolker, R., & Bejder, L. (2006). Synchrony, social behaviour and alliance affiliation in Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops aduncus. Animal Behaviour, 72(6), 1371–1378.
Connor, R. C., Watson-Capps, J. J., Sherwin, W. B., & Krützen, M. (2010). A new level of complexity in the male alliance networks of Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.). Biology Letters, rsbl20100852.
Cooper, J. M. (1949). Games and gambling. Bureau of American Ethnography Bulletin, 5(143), 503–524.
Copway, G. (1860). The Ojibways. Boston: Albert Colby.
Cordoni, G. (2009). Social play in captive wolves (Canis lupus): Not only an immature affair. Behaviour, 146(10), 1363–1385.
Craig, S. (2002). Sports and games of the ancients. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Culin, S. (1907) Games of the North American Indians. 24th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.
Cumming, J., & Ramsey, R. (2008). Imagery interventions in sport. In S. Mellalieu & S. Hanton (Eds.), Advances in applied sport psychology: A review (pp. 5–36). London: Routledge.
Cumming, J., & Williams, S. E. (2012). The role of imagery in performance. In S. Murphy (Ed.), Handbook of Sport and Performance Psychology (pp. 213–232). New York: Oxford University Press.
Darwin, C. (1859). On the origin of the species by natural selection. London: J. Murray.
Dawkins, R. (1986). The blind watchmaker: Why the evidence of evolution reveals a universe without design. New York: W.W. Norton.
De Agostini, Alberto M. (1956) 30 años en Tierra del Fuego. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Peuser.
Deaner, R. O., & Smith, B. A. (2013). Sex differences in sports across 50 societies. Cross-Cultural Research, 47(3), 268–309.
Deaner, R. O., Geary, D. C., Puts, D. A., et al. (2015). A sex difference in the predisposition for physical competition: Males play sports much more than females even in the contemporary U.S. PLoS One, 7(11), e49168.
Dolhinow, P. (1999). Play: A critical process in the developmental system. In P. Dolhinow & A. Fuentes (Eds.), The nonhuman primates (pp. 231–236). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Dolhinow, P. J., & Bishop, N. (1970). The development of motor skills and social relationships among primates through play. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, 4, 141–198.
Dorsey, J. O. (1884). Omaha sociology. Third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, part 2, pp. 205–370. Washington DC.
Dorsey, G. A. (1901). Games of the Makah Indians of Neah Bay. The American Antiquarian, 23, 69–73.
Duntley, J. D. (2005). Adaptations to dangers from humans. In Buss, D. (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology (pp. 224–249). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Eastman, C. A. (1902). Indian boyhood. New York: Dover.
Elmendorf, W. W., & Kroeber, A. L. (1992). The structure of Twana culture with comparative notes on the structure of Yurok culture: Pre-white tribal lifeways on Washington’s Hood Canal. Pullman: Washington State. University Press.
Ember, C. R. (1978). Myths about hunter-gatherers. Ethnology, 17(4), 439–448.
Ember, C. R., & Ember, M. (1997). Violence in the ethnographic record: Results of cross-cultural research on war and aggression. In D. Martin & D. W. Frayer (Eds.), Troubled times: Violence and warfare in the past (pp. 1–20). Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach.
Fagen, R. (1974). Selective and evolutionary aspects of animal play. The American Naturalist, 108(964), 850–858.
Fagen, R. M. (1977). Selection for optimal age-dependent schedules of play behavior. The American Naturalist, 111(979), 395–414.
Fagen, R. (1981). Animal play behavior. London: Oxford University Press.
Frayer, D. W. (1997). Ofnet: Evidence for a Mesolithic massacre. In D. Martin & D. W. Frayer (Eds.), Troubled times: Violence and warfare in the past (pp. 181–216). Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach.
Garfield, Z. H., Garfield, M. J., & Hewlett, B. S. (2016). A cross-cultural analysis of hunter-gatherer social learning. In H. Terashima & B. Hewlett (Eds.), Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers (pp. 19–34). Tokyo: Springer.
Gat, A. (1999). The pattern of fighting in simple, small-scale, pre-state societies. Journal of Anthropological Research, 55(4), 563–583.
Gilij, F. S. (1992). Ensayo de Historia Americana. Translator Antonio Tovar. 3 vols. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Arte. (Originally published in 1731).
Goodwin, G. (1971). Western Apache raiding and warfare, In K. Basso (Ed.). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Guinnard, A. (1861). Tres años de esclavitud entre los Patagones (Relato de Mi Cautiverio). Doral, FL: Stockcero.
Haenke, T. (1943). Viaje por el Virreinato del Río de la Plata. Buenos Aires: Emecé Editores. (Originally published in 1794).
Hager, S. (1895). Micmac customs and traditions. American Anthropologist, 8(1), 31–42.
Henn, V., & Lignitz, E. (2004). Kicking and trampling to death. In M. Tsokos (Ed.), Forensic pathology reviews (pp. 31–50). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
Hoffman, W. J. (1890). Remarks on Ojibwa ball play. American Anthropologist, 3(2), 133–136.
Hoffman, W. J. (1896). The Menomini Indians. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bulletin of American Ethnology. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
Hutchinson, T. J. (1865). On the Chaco and other Indians of South America. Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, 3, 321–334.
Ingstad, H. (1987). Nunamiut stories. K. Bergsland (Trans. and Ed.). Barrow: North Slope Borough Commission on Iñupiat History, Language and Culture.
Isaac, G. (1978). The food-sharing behavior of protohuman hominids. Scientific American, 238(4), 90–109.
Kaplan, H., Gangestad, S., Gurven, M., Lancaster, J., Mueller, T., & Robson, A. (2007). The evolution of diet, brain and life history among primates and humans. In W. Roebroeks (Ed.), Guts and brains: An integrative approach to the hominin record (pp. 47–90). Leiden: Leiden University Press.
Kaufman, S. F. (2004). Musashi’s Book of Five Rings. Rutland, VT: Tuttle.
Kay, A., & Teasdale, G. (2001). Head injury in the United Kingdom. World Journal of Surgery, 25(9), 1210–1220.
Lahr, M. M., Rivera, F., Power, R. K., Mounier, A., Copsey, B., Crivellaro, F., et al. (2016). Inter-group violence among early Holocene hunter-gatherers of West Turkana, Kenya. Nature, 529(7586), 394–398.
Lambert, P. M. (2002). The archaeology of war: A North American perspective. Journal of Archaeological Research, 10(3), 207–241.
Lambert, P. M. (2007). The osteological evidence for indigenous warfare in North America. In R. Chacon & R. G. Mendoza (Eds.), North American indigenous warfare and ritual violence (pp. 202–221). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Lancaster, J. B. (1971). Play-mothering: The relations between juvenile females and young infants among free-ranging vervet monkeys (Cevcopithecus aethiops). Folia Primatologica, 15(3-4), 161–182.
Lancaster, J. B., & Lancaster, C. S. (1983). Parental investment: The hominid adaptation. In D. Ortner (Ed.), How humans adapt: A biocultural odyssey (pp. 33–56). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.
Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159–174.
LeBlanc, S. A., & Register, K. E. (2003). Constant battles: Why we fight. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Lee, R. B., & DeVore, I. (Eds.). (1968). Man the hunter. Chicago: Aldine.
Leonard, W. R., Robertson, M. L., & Snodgrass, J. J. (2007). Energetics and the evolution of brain size in early Homo. In W. Roebroeks (Ed.), Guts and brains: An integrative approach to the hominin record (pp. 29–46). Leiden: Leiden University Press.
Liebenberg, L. (2006). Persistence hunting by modern hunter-gatherers. Current Anthropology, 47(6), 1017–1026.
Logan, C. J., & Longino, J. T. (2013). Adult male coatis play with a band of juveniles. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 73(2), 353–355.
Loizos, C. (1966). Play in mammals. In P. A. Jewell & Caroline Loizos (Eds.), Play, exploration, and territory in mammals (pp. 1–9). New York: Academic Press.
Lombardo, M. P. (2012). On the evolution of sport. Evolutionary Psychology, 10(1), 147470491201000101.
MacDonald, K. (2007). Cross-cultural comparison of learning in human hunting. Human Nature, 18(4), 386–402.
Macfarlan, A., & Macfarlan, P. (1958). Book of American Indian games. New York: Association Press.
Maguire, R. A. J. (1928). “Il-torōbo”: Part II. Journal of the Royal African Society, 27(107), 249–268.
Manson, J. H., & Wrangham, R. W. (1991). Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and humans [and comments and replies]. Current Anthropology, 32(4), 369–390.
Marlowe, F. (2005). Hunter-gatherers and human evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology, 14, 54–67.
Maschner, H. D., & Reedy-Maschner, K. L. (1998). Raid, retreat, defend (repeat): The archaeology and ethnohistory of warfare on the North Pacific Rim. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 17(1), 19–51.
McClellan, C. (1987). Part of the land, part of the water: A history of the Yukon Indians. Vancouver, BC: Douglas and McIntyre.
McDonald, M. M., Navarrete, C. D., & Van Vugt, M. (2012). Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: The male warrior hypothesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367(1589), 670–679.
Mendoza, M. (1985). Hombres-de-guerra y hombres-de-paz: integración de los impulsos agresivos y pacíficos entre los Tobas del Pilcomayo Medio. Publicaciones del CEFyL, Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Buenos Aires.
Mendoza, M. (2016). Juegos de combate entre varones de grupos etnográficos cazadores-recolectores. Resistencia, Argentina: Universidad Nacional del Nordeste.
Métraux, A. (1943). Suicide among the Matako of the Argentine Gran Chaco. América Indígena, 3, 199–210.
Moran, A., Guillot, A., MacIntyre, T., & Collet, C. (2012). Re-imagining motor imagery: Building bridges between cognitive neuroscience and sport psychology. British Journal of Psychology, 103(2), 224–247.
Moss, M. L., & Erlandson, J. M. (1992). Forts, refuge rocks, and defensive sites: The antiquity of warfare along the north Pacific Coast of North America. Arctic Anthropology, 29(2), 73–90.
Murdock, G. (1967). Ethnographic atlas. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Nefëdkin, Alexander K. (2014). Warfare of the Chukchi (mid 17 th to early 20 th century). Translated by Richard L. Bland. Anchorage: US Department of Interior, National Park Service, Shared Beringian Heritage Program.
Nordenskiöld, E. (1910). Spiele und Spielsachen im Gran Chaco und in Nordamerika. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 42(3/4), 427–433.
Opler, M. (1938). Myths and tales of the Jicarilla Apache Indians. New York: American Folklore Society.
Opler, M. E. (1941). An Apache life-way: The economic, social, and religious institutions of the Chiricahua Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Oskarsson, P. A., Nählinder, S., & Svensson, E. (2010). A meta study of transfer of training. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 54(28), 2422–2426. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
Oswalt, W. (1999). Eskimos and explorers, second ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Parsons, E. W. C. (Ed.). (1929). Kiowa tales. Memoirs of the American Folklore Society 22.
Pellis, S. M., & Iwaniuk, A. N. (1999). The problem of adult play fighting: A comparative analysis of play and courtship in primates. Ethology, 105(9), 783–806.
Powers, S. (1877). Tribes of California. US Geological Survey Contributions to American Ethnology 3. Washington, DC.
Raichlen, D., et al. (2016). Physical activity patterns and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in hunter-gatherers. American Journal of Human Biology. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22919.
Rand, S. T., & Webster, H. L. (1894). Legends of the Micmacs. New York and London: Longmans, Green.
Rasmussen, K. (1931). The Netsilik Eskimos: Social life and spiritual culture. Report of the 5th Thule Expedition 1921–24. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag.
Rasmussen, K., & Calvert, W. E. (1932). Intellectual culture of the Copper Eskimos. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel.
Roberts, J. M., & Sutton-Smith, B. (1962). Child training and game involvement. Ethnology, 1(2), 166–185.
Scalise Sugiyama, M. (2014). Fitness costs of warfare for women. Human Nature, 25(4), 476–495.
Schebesta, P. (1933). Among Congo Pygmies. London: Hutchinson.
Sipes, R. G. (1973). War, sports and aggression: An empirical test of two rival theories. American Anthropologist, 75(1), 64–86.
Stamps, J. (1995). Motor learning and the value of familiar space. The American Naturalist, 146(1), 41–58.
Stern, B. J. (1934). The Lummi Indians of northwest Washington. New York: Columbia University Press.
Sutton-Smith, B. (1995). Conclusion: The persuasive rhetorics of play. In Anthony D. Pellegrini (Ed.), The future of play theory: A multidisciplinary inquiry into the contributions of Brian Sutton-Smith (pp. 275–295). Albany: SUNY Press.
Symons, D. (1974). Aggressive play and communication in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). American Zoologist, 317–322.
Symons, D. (1978). Play and aggression: A study of rhesus monkeys. New York: Columbia University Press.
Symons, D. (1987). If we're all Darwinians, what's the fuss about? In C. Crawford, M. Smith, & D. Krebs (Eds.), Sociobiology and psychology: Ideas, issues, and applications (pp. 121–146). Hillsdale, NJ: L Erlbaum Associates.
Symons, D. (1992). On the use and misuse of Darwinism in the study of human behavior. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 137–159). New York: Oxford University Press.
Taçon, P., & Chippendale, C. (1994). Australia’s ancient warriors: Changing depictions of fighting in the rock art of Arnhem Land, N.T. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 4, 211–248.
Teit, J. A. (1956). Field notes on the Tahltan and Kaska Indians: 1912-1915, edited by J. H. MacNeish. Anthropologica, 3, 39–171.
Thornhill, R. (1997). The concept of an evolved adaptation. In Bock, G., Cardew, G. (Eds.), Characterizing human psychological adaptations (pp. 4-22). Ciba Foundation Symposium 208. Chichester, UK, and New York: Wiley.
Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1988). The evolution of war and its cognitive foundations. Institute for Evolutionary Studies Technical Report 88–81.
Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1989). Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, part I. Theoretical considerations. Evolution and Human Behavior, 10(1), 29–49.
Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (2001). Does beauty build adapted minds? Toward an evolutionary theory of aesthetics, fiction, and the arts. SubStance, 94(95), 6–27.
Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (2010). Groups in mind: The coalitional roots of warfare and morality. In H. Høgh-Olesen (Ed.), Human morality and sociality: Evolutionary and comparative perspectives (pp. 191–234). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Tooby, J. and DeVore, I. (1987). The reconstruction of hominid behavioral evolution through strategic modeling. In W. Kinzey (Ed.), The evolution of human behavior: Primate models (pp. 183–237). Albany: SUNY Press.
Turnbull, C. M. (1983). The Mbuti Pygmies: Change and adaptation. NewYork: Holt Rinehart and Winston.
Van Lawick-Goodall, J. (1967). My friends the wild chimpanzees. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society.
Walker, J. R. (1905). Sioux games I. Journal of American Folklore, 18(71), 277–290.
Walker, R., Hill, K., Kaplan, H., & McMillan, G. (2002). Age dependency of strength, skill, and hunting ability among the Ache of Paraguay. Journal of Human Evolution, 42, 639–657.
Warner, W. L. (1931). Murngin warfare. Oceania, 1(4), 457–494.
Webster, G. (1998). The Roman Imperial Army of the first and second centuries AD. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Wells, R. Jr., & John W. Kelly. (1890). English-Eskimo and Eskimo-English vocabularies (compiled by Wells), preceded by ethnographical memoranda concerning the Arctic Eskimos in Alaska and Siberia (by Kelly). Bureau of Education Circular 2. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
Wilbert, J. (Ed.). (1975). Folk literature of the Selknam Indians. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications.
Williams, G. C. (1966). Adaptation and natural selection: A critique of some current evolutionary thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Withnell, J. G. (1901). The customs and traditions of the Aboriginal natives of North Western Australia. Roebourne, Australia: Hugh B. Geyer, Printer.
Wrangham, R. W. (1999). Evolution of coalitionary killing. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 42, 1–39.
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Scalise Sugiyama, M., Mendoza, M., White, F. et al. Coalitional Play Fighting and the Evolution of Coalitional Intergroup Aggression. Hum Nat 29, 219–244 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-018-9319-1
- Coalitional play fighting
- Team sports
- Lethal raiding