Skip to main content

Human Identity and the Evolution of Societies

Abstract

Human societies are examined as distinct and coherent groups. This trait is most parsimoniously considered a deeply rooted part of our ancestry rather than a recent cultural invention. Our species is the only vertebrate with society memberships of significantly more than 200. We accomplish this by using society-specific labels to identify members, in what I call an anonymous society. I propose that the human brain has evolved to permit not only the close relationships described by the social brain hypothesis, but also, at little mental cost, the anonymous societies within which such alliances are built. The human compulsion to discover or invent labels to “mark” group memberships may originally have been expressed in hominins as vocally learned greetings only slightly different in function from chimpanzee pant hoots (now known to be society-specific). The weight of evidence suggests that at some point, conceivably early in the hominin line, the distinct groups composed of several bands that were typical of our ancestors came to be distinguished by their members on the basis of multiple labels that were socially acquired in this way, the earliest of which would leave no trace in the archaeological record. Often overlooked as research subjects, these sizable fission-fusion communities, in recent egalitarian hunter-gatherers sometimes 2,000 strong, should consistently be accorded the status of societies, in the same sense that this word is used to describe tribes, chiefdoms, and other cultures arising later in our history. The capacity of hunter-gatherer societies to grow sufficiently populous that not all members necessarily recognize one another would make the transition to larger agricultural societies straightforward. Humans differ from chimpanzees in that societal labels are essential to the maintenance of societies and the processes giving birth to new ones. I propose that anonymous societies of all kinds can expand only so far as their labels can remain sufficiently stable.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Notes

  1. 1.

    Moffett (2012) gave a lower limit of 100, but Pan communities can exceed this number, with a group studied by John Mitani (personal communication, 2012) at one point containing 187 chimpanzees. Naked mole-rats, with societies of up to 295 members, are an exception (Lacey and Sherman 1997). As it turns out, these rodents, much like social insects, have anonymous societies based on a colony odor, although as in humans they are capable of recognizing each other as individuals as well (Moffett 2012).

  2. 2.

    Although hunter-gatherer bands are relatively stable and wide ranging, and disperse into foraging teams that return to the current camp nightly, they may be homologous to chimpanzee and bonobo parties (Furuichi 2009), which is how I treat them in this paper. Multiband societies are homologous to the communities of Pan, which likewise are bounded societies. Layton and O’Hara (2010:108) reach this conclusion, too, albeit on the erroneous basis of large networks persisting because of “the need to keep membership options in a number of bands open” rather than as a direct product of shared identity. Thus a “human society is essentially a chimpanzee community with exploded fission-fusion” (Foley and Gamble 2009:3277). Pan communities are presumably homologous in turn to relatively compact societies of more distantly related primates. If so, and given the conclusion of Aureli et al. (2008) that there is no justification for treating fission-fusion societies as a distinct category, they could probably also be called “troops” rather than the equivocal “communities.” Note that “higher fission-fusion” sensu Aureli et al. (2008) is the only form of fission-fusion I will address.

  3. 3.

    Xenophobia has unfortunately been used differently by different authors. Judging by the Oxford English dictionary, the word should indicate an aversion to foreigners as a class (i.e., whether or not they have been encountered previously as individuals), rather than a general fear of any stranger (unfamiliar individual).

  4. 4.

    Similar polarizing processes occur inside subgroups within modern societies (Hogg 2006; Labov 1972), where differences may be presumed by members to exist, even when they do not (Hogg and Abrams 1998).

  5. 5.

    As with the division of one society into two, the merger of two societies should not be confounded with the fluid and reversible dynamics of fission-fusion groups, which is why I chose to describe them as mergers rather than fusions.

References

  1. Abegglen, J.-J. (1984). On socialization in Hamadryas baboons: A field study. Cranbury: Associated University Presses.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Abruzzi, W. S. (1980). Flux among the Mbuti pygmies of the Ituri forest. In E. B. Ross (Ed.), Beyond the myths of vulture (pp. 3–31). New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Abruzzi, W. S. (1982). Ecological theory and ethnic differentiation among human populations. Current Anthropology, 23, 13–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Addessi, E., Crescimbene, L., & Visalberghi, E. (2007). Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) use tokens as symbols? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 274, 2579–2585.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Aiello, L. C., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (1993). Neocortex size, group size, and the evolution of language. Current Anthropology, 34, 184–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Alcorta, C. S., & Sosis, R. (2005). Ritual, emotion, and sacred symbols: the evolution of religion as an adaptive complex. Human Nature, 16, 323–359.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Alexander, R. D. (1979). Darwinism and human affairs. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading: Addison-Wesley.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Amici, F., Aureli, F., & Call, J. (2008). Fission-fusion dynamics, behavioral flexibility, and inhibitory control in primates. Current Biology, 18, 1415–1419.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism, revised ed. London: Verso.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Antal, T., Ohtsuki, H., Wakeley, J., Taylor, P. D., & Nowak, M. A. (2009). Evolution of cooperation by phenotypic similarity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 106, 8597–8600.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Apicella, C. L., Marlowe, F. W., Fowler, J. H., & Christakis, N. A. (2012). Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers. Nature, 481, 497–501.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Arnold, J. E. (1996). The archaeology of complex hunter-gatherers. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 3, 77–126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Atkinson, Q. D., Gray, R. D., & Drummond, A. J. (2008a). mtDNA variation predicts population size in humans and reveals a major Southern Asian chapter in human prehistory. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25, 468–474.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Atkinson, Q. D., Meade, A., Venditti, C., Greenhill, S. J., & Pagel, M. (2008b). Languages evolve in punctuatonal bursts. Science, 319, 588.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Atran, S., & Henrich, J. (2010). The evolution of religion: how cognitive by-products, adaptive learning heuristics, ritual displays, and group competition generate deep commitments to prosocial religions. Biological Theory, 5, 1–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Aureli, F., Schaffner, C. M., Boesch, C., Bearder, S. K., Call, J., Chapman, C. A., et al. (2008). Fission-fusion dynamics: new research frameworks. Current Anthropology, 49, 627–654.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Axelrod, R., Hammond, R. A., & Grafen, A. (2004). Altruism via kin-selection strategies that rely on arbitrary tags with which they coevolve. Evolution, 58, 1833–1838.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Bahuchet, S. (2012). Changing language, remaining pygmy. Human Biology, 84, 11–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Banaji, M. R., & Bhaskar, R. (2000). Implicit stereotypes and memory: The bounded rationality of social beliefs. In D. L. Schacter & E. Scarry (Eds.), Memory, brain, and belief (pp. 139–175). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Bandy, M. S. (2004). Fissioning, scalar stress, and social evolution in early village societies. American Anthropologist, 106, 322–333.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Bandy, M. S., & Fox, J. R. (Eds.). (2010). The evolution of early village societies. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Barnard, A. (2010). When individuals do not stop at the skin. In R. I. M. Dunbar, C. Gamble, & J. Gowlett (Eds.), Social brain, distributed mind (pp. 249–267). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Bar-Tal, D., & Staub, E. (Eds.). (1997). Patriotism in the lives of individuals and nations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Barth, F. (1969). Introduction. In F. Barth (Ed.), Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference (pp. 9–38). Boston: Little, Brown.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Behar, D. M., Villems, R., Soodyall, H., Blue-Smith, J., Pereira, L., Metspalu, E., et al. (2008). The dawn of human matrilineal diversity. American Journal of Human Genetics, 82, 1130–1140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Bergman, T. J. (2010). Experimental evidence for limited vocal recognition in a wild primate: implications for the social complexity hypothesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277, 3045–3053.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Bergman, T. J., Beehner, J. C., Cheney, D. L., & Seyfarth, R. M. (2003). Hierarchical classification by rank and kinship in baboons. Science, 302, 1234–1236.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Berndt, R. M. (1959). The concept of “the tribe” in the Western Desert of Australia. Oceania, 30, 81–107.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Bernhard, H., Fischbacher, U., & Fehr, E. (2006). Parochial altruism in humans. Nature, 442, 912–915.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Berreby, D. (2005). Us and them: Understanding your tribal mind. New York: Little, Brown.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Beugnon, G., & Dejean, A. (1992). Adaptive properties of the chemical trail system of the African weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda. Insectes Sociaux, 39, 341–346.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Bigelow, R. (1969). The dawn warriors: Man’s evolution toward peace. Boston: Little, Brown.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Bigler, R. S., & Liben, L. S. (2006). A developmental intergroup theory of social stereotypes and prejudice. In R. V. Kail (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 34, pp. 39–89). San Diego: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Billig, M. (1995). Banal nationalism. London: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Binford, L. R. (2001). Constructing frames of reference: An analytical method for archaeological theory building using ethnographic and environmental data sets. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Birdsell, J. B. (1957). Some population problems involving Pleisocene man. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 22, 47–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Birdsell, J. B. (1958). On population structure in generalized hunting and collecting populations. Evolution, 12, 189–205.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Birdsell, J. B. (1968). Some predictions for the Pleistocene based on equilibrium systems among recent foragers. In R. Lee & I. DeVore (Eds.), Man the hunter (pp. 229–249). Chicago: Aldine.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Birdsell, J. B. (1970). Local group composition among the Australian Aborigines: a critique of the evidence from fieldwork conducted since 1930. Current Anthropology, 11, 115–142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Birdsell, J. B. (1973). The basic demographic unit. Current Anthropology, 14, 337–356.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Blackburn, K. (2002). Mapping Aboriginal nations: the “nation” concept of late nineteenth century anthropologists in Australia. Aboriginal History, 26, 131–158.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Bloom, P., & Veres, C. (1999). Perceived intentionality of groups. Cognition, 71, B1–B9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Bocquet-Appel, J.-P. (2011). When the world’s population took off: the springboard of the Neolithic demographic transition. Science, 333, 560–561.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Bodenhausen, G. V., & Peery, D. (2009). Social categorization and stereotyping in vivo: the VUCA challenge. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3, 133–151.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Boehm, C. (2012a). Moral origins: Social selection and the evolution of virtue, altruism, and shame. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Boehm, C. (2012b). Ancestral hierarchy and conflict. Science, 336, 844–847.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Boesch, E. (2012). From material to symbolic cultures: Culture in primates. In J. Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 677–694). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Bonnie, K. E., Horner, V., Whiten, A., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2007). Spread of arbitrary customs among chimpanzees: a controlled experiment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274, 367–372.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Boughman, J. W., & Wilkinson, G. S. (1998). Greater spear-nosed bats discriminate group mates by vocalizations. Animal Behaviour, 55, 1717–1732.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Bowles, S. (2006). Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism. Science, 314, 1569–1572.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Bowles, S. (2009). Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors? Science, 324, 1293–1298.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Bowles, S. (2012). Warriors, levelers, and the role of conflict in human social evolution. Science, 336, 876–879.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (2011). A cooperative species: Human reciprocity and its evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (1987). The evolution of ethnic markers. Cultural Anthropology, 2, 65–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (1988). The evolution of reciprocity in sizable groups. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 132, 337–356.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (1989). The evolution of indirect reciprocity. Social Networks, 11, 213–236.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (2005). The origin and evolution of cultures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Boyd, R., Borgerhoff-Mulder, M., Durham, W. H., & Richerson, P. J. (1997). Are cultural phylogenies possible? In P. Weingart, S. D. Mitchell, P. J. Richerson, & S. Maasen (Eds.), Human by nature: Between biology and the social sciences (pp. 355–386). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Boyd, R., Gintis, H., Bowles, S., & Richerson, P. J. (2003). The evolution of altruistic punishment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 100, 3531–3535.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Bradbury, J. W., & Vehrencamp, S. L. (2011). Principles of animal communication (2nd ed.). Sunderland: Sinauer Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Brewer, M. B. (1979). The role of ethnocentrism in intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 71–84). Monterey: Brooks/Cole.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Brewer, M. B. (1991). The social self: on being the same and different at the same time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 475–482.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Brewer, M. B. (1999). The psychology of prejudice: ingroup love or outgroup hate? Journal of Social Issues, 55, 429–444.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Brewer, M. B. (2000). Superordinate goals versus superordinate identity as bases of intergroup cooperation. In R. Brown & D. Capozza (Eds.), Social identity processes: Trends in theory and research (pp. 117–132). London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Brewer, M. B. (2007). The importance of being we: human nature and intergroup relations. American Psychologist, 62, 728–738.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Brewer, M. B., & Caporael, L. R. (2006). An evolutionary perspective on social identity: Revisiting groups. In M. Schaller, J. A. Simpson, & D. T. Kenrick (Eds.), Evolution and social psychology (pp. 143–161). New York: Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Brown, R. (1986). Social psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Brown, D. E. (2004). Human universals, human nature, and human culture. Daedalus, 133, 47–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Brown, E. D., & Farabaugh, S. M. (1997). What birds with complex social relationships can tell us about vocal learning: Vocal sharing in avian groups. In C. T. Snowdon & M. Hausberger (Eds.), Social influences on vocal development (pp. 98–127). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  72. Brown, W. L., Jr., & Wilson, E. O. (1956). Character displacement. Systematic Zoology, 5, 49–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Butz, D. A. (2009). National symbols as agents of psychological and social change. Political Psychology, 30, 779–804.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Buys, C. J., & Larson, K. L. (1979). Human sympathy groups. Psychology Reports, 45, 547–553.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Caporael, L. R. (1997). The evolution of truly social cognition: the core configurations model. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1, 276–298.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Caporael, L. R., & Baron, R. M. (1997). Groups as the mind’s natural environment. In J. Simpson & D. Kenrick (Eds.), Evolutionary social psychology (pp. 317–343). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Caporael, L. R., & Brewer, M. B. (1995). Hierarchical evolutionary theory: there is an alternative, and it’s not creationism. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 31–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Carlin, N. F., & Hölldobler, B. (1983). Nestmate and kin recognition in interspecific mixed colonies of ants. Science, 222, 1027–1029.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Carneiro, R. L. (1967). On the relationship between size of population and complexity of social organization. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 23, 234–243.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Carneiro, R. L. (1987). Village splitting as a function of population size. In L. Donald (Ed.), Themes in ethnology and culture history: Essays in honor of David F. Aberle (pp. 94–124). Meerut: Archana.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Cashdan, E. (1983). Territoriality among human foragers: ecological models and an application to four Bushmen groups. Current Anthropology, 24, 47–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Cashdan, E. (2001). Ethnocentrism and xenophobia: a cross-cultural study. Current Anthropology, 42, 760–765.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Castano, E., Yzerbyt, V., Bourguignon, D., & Seron, E. (2002). Who may enter? The impact of in-group identification on in-group-out-group categorization. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 315–322.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Chagnon, N. A. (1975). Genealogy, solidarity, and relatedness: limits to local group size and patterns of fissioning in an expanding population. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 19, 95–110.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Chagnon, N. A. (2013). The Yanomamö. Belmont: Wadsworth.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Chambers, J. K. (2008). Sociolinguistic theory: Linguistic variation and its social significance (3rd ed.). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Chance, M. R. A., & Larsen, R. R. (Eds.). (1976). The social structure of attention. New York: John Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Chapais, B. (2008). Primeval kinship: How pair bonding gave birth to human society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Chapais, B. (2011). The deep social structure of humankind. Science, 331, 1276–1277.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Cheney, D. L. (1987). Interactions and relationships between groups. In B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, & T. T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate societies (pp. 267–281). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Christian, J. J. (1970). Social subordination, population density, and mammalian evolution. Science, 168, 84–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Cialdini, R. B. (1993). Influence: The psychology of persuasion. New York: Quill William Morrow.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Clark, A., & Chalmers, D. (1998). The extended mind. Analysis, 58, 7–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Cohen, R. (1978). State origins: A reappraisal. In H. J. M. Claessen & P. Skalnik (Eds.), The early state (pp. 31–75). The Hague: Mouton.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Cohen, E. (2012). The evolution of tag-based cooperation in humans: the case for accent. Current Anthropology, 53, 588–616.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Conkey, M. W. (1982). Boundedness in art and society. In I. Hodder (Ed.), Symbolic and structural archaeology (pp. 115–128). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  97. Connerton, P. (2010). Some functions of collective forgetting. In R. I. M. Dunbar, C. Gamble, & J. Gowlett (Eds.), Social brain, distributed mind (pp. 283–308). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Corneille, O., Yzerbyt, V. Y., Rogier, A., & Buidin, G. (2001). Threat and the group attribution error: when threat elicits judgments of extremity and homogeneity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 437–446.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Cosmides, L., Tooby, J., & Kurzban, R. (2003). Perceptions of race. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 173–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Cottrell, C. A., & Neuberg, S. L. (2005). Different emotional reactions to different groups: a sociofunctional threat-based approach to “prejudice”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 770–789.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Crockford, C., Herbinger, I., Vigilant, L., & Boesch, C. (2004). Wild chimpanzees produce group-specific calls: a case for vocal learning? Ethology, 110, 221–243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Culotta, E. (2012). Roots of racism. Science, 336, 825–827.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. d’Errico, F., Backwell, L., Villa, P., Degano, I., Lucejko, J. J., Bamford, M. K., et al. (2012). Early evidence of San material culture represented by organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 109, 13214–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Darwin, C. (1871). The descent of man in relation to sex (Vol. 1). London: John Murray.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  105. De Dreu, C. K. W. (2011). Oxytocin modulates cooperation within and competition between groups: an integrative review and research agenda. Hormones and Behavior, 61, 419–428.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. De Dreu, C. K. W., Greer, L. L., Handgraaf, M. J. J., Shalvi, S., Van Kleef, G. A., Baas, M., et al. (2010). The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates parochial altruism in intergroup conflict among humans. Science, 328, 1408–1411.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. De Dreu, C. K. W., Greer, L. L., Van Kleef, G. A., Shalvi, S., & Handgraaf, M. J. J. (2011). Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 108, 1262–1266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. de Waal, F. B. M. (1988). The communicative repertoire of captive bonobos (Pan paniscus), compared to that of chimpanzees. Behaviour, 106, 183–251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  109. de Waal, F. B. M. (2012). The antiquity of empathy. Science, 336, 874–876.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  110. de Waal, F. B. M. & Tyack, P. L. (2003). Preface. In Animal social complexity: Intelligence, culture and individualized societies (pp. ix-xiv). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  111. Dennis, M. (1993). Cultivating a landscape of peace: Iroquois-European encounters in seventeenth century America. New York: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Diamond, J. M. (1992). The third chimpanzee: The evolution and future of the human animal. New York: HarperCollins.

    Google Scholar 

  114. Dittus, W. P. J. (1988). Group fission among wild toque macaques as a consequence of female resource competition and environmental stress. Animal Behaviour, 36, 1626–1645.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Dixon, R. M. W. (1976). Tribes, languages and other boundaries in northeast Queensland. In N. Peterson (Ed.), Tribes and boundaries in Australia (pp. 207–238). Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press.

    Google Scholar 

  116. Dixon, R. M. W. (1997). The rise and fall of languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  117. Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  118. Dunbar, R. I. M. (1992). Time: a hidden constraint on the behavioural ecology of baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 31, 35–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Dunbar, R. I. M. (1993). Coevolution of neocortex size, group size and language in humans. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 681–735.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Dunbar, R. I. M. (2001). Brains on two legs: Group size and the evolution of intelligence. In F. B. M. de Waal (Ed.), Tree of origin: What primate behavior can tell us about human social evolution (pp. 173–192). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  121. Dunbar, R. I. M. (2007). The social brain and the cultural explosion of the human revolution. In P. Mellars, K. Boyle, O. Bar-Yosef, & C. Stringer (Eds.), Rethinking the human revolution: New behavioural and biological perspectives on the origin and dispersal of modern humans (pp. 91–98). Cambridge: McDonald Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  122. Dunham, Y., Baron, A. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2008). The development of implicit intergroup cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 248–253.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Durkheim, E. (1995). The elementary forms of religious life (tr. Karen Fields). New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  124. East, M. L., & Hofer, H. (1991). Loud calling in a female dominated mammalian society, II: behavioural contexts and functions of whooping of spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta. Animal Behaviour, 42, 651–669.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Efferson, C., Lalive, R., & Fehr, E. (2008). The coevolution of cultural groups and ingroup favoritism. Science, 321, 1844–1849.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  126. Ellemers, N. (2012). The group self. Science, 336, 848–852.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Eshel, I., & Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (1982). Assortment of encounters and evolution of cooperativeness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 79, 1331–1335.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Esses, V. M., Jackson, L. M., & Armstrong, T. L. (1998). Intergroup competition and attitudes toward immigrants and immigration: an instrumental model of group conflict. Journal of Social Issues, 54, 699–724.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  129. Fair, S. W. (2001). The Inupiaq Eskimo messenger feast: celebration, demise, and possibility. Journal of American Folklore, 113, 464–494.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Feblot-Augustins, J., & Perlès, C. (1992). Perspectives ethnoarchéologiques sur les échanges à longue distance. In A. Gallay, F. Audouze, & V. Roux (Eds.), Ethnoarchéologie: justification, problémes, limites. Actes des XIIe Recontres Internationales d’Archéologie et d’Histoire d’Antibes (pp. 195–209). Juan-les-Pins: Èditions APDCA.

  131. Feekes, F. (1982). Song mimesis within colonies of Cacicus c. cela (Icteridae, Aves): a colonial password? Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 58, 119–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  132. Feshbach, S., & Sakano, N. (1997). The structure and correlates of attitudes toward one’s nation in samples of United States and Japanese college students: A comparative study. In D. Bar-Tal & E. Staub (Eds.), Patriotism in the lives of individuals and nations (pp. 91–107). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  133. Finkel, D. N., Swartwout, P., & Sosis, R. (2010). The socio-religious brain: A developmental model. In R. I. M. Dunbar, C. Gamble, & J. Gowlett (Eds.), Social brain, distributed mind (pp. 283–308). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  134. Fiske, S. T. (2005). Social cognition and the normality of prejudgment. In J. F. Dovidio, P. Glick, & L. A. Rudman (Eds.), On the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport (pp. 36–53). Malden: Blackwell.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  135. Fiske, S. T. (2010). Social beings: Core motives in social psychology (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  136. Fiske, S. T., & Neuberg, S. L. (1990). A continuum of impression formation, from category-based to individuating processes: influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 1–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Fitch, W. T. (2000). The evolution of speech: a comparative review. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 258–267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  138. Flannery, K. V. (2009). Evolution of complex settlement systems. In K. V. Flannery (Ed.), The early Mesoamerican village, updated edition (pp. 162–173). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.

  139. Fletcher, R. (1995). The limits of settlement growth: A theoretical outline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  140. Foley, R. A., & Gamble, C. (2009). The ecology of social transitions in human evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 364, 3267–3279.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Foley, R. A., & Lahr, M. M. (2011). The evolution of the diversity of cultures. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 366, 1080–1089.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  142. Ford, J. K. B. (1991). Vocal traditions among resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in coastal waters of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69, 1454–1483.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  143. Forge, A. (1972). Normative factors in the settlement size of Neolithic cultivators (New Guinea). In P. J. Ucko, R. Tringham, & G. W. Dimbelby (Eds.), Man, settlement and urbanism (pp. 363–376). London: Duckworth.

    Google Scholar 

  144. Furuichi, T. (1987). Sexual swelling, receptivity, and grouping of wild pygmy chimpanzee females at Wamba, Zaire. Primates, 28, 309–318.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  145. Furuichi, T. (2009). Factors underlying party size differences between chimpanzees and bonobos: a review and hypotheses for future study. Primates, 50, 197–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  146. Furuichi, T. (2011). Female contributions to the peaceful nature of bonobo society. Evolutionary Anthropology, 20, 131–142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  147. Furuya, Y. (1969). On the fission of troops of Japanese monkeys, II: general view of group fission of Japanese monkeys. Primates, 10, 47–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  148. Gamble, C. (1998). Paleolithic society and the release from proximity: a network approach to intimate relations. World Archaeology, 29, 426–449.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  149. Geisler, M. E. (2005). What are national symbols—and what do they do to us? In M. E. Geisler (Ed.), National symbols, fractured identities (pp. xiii–xlii). Middlebury: Middlebury College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  150. Gilbert, D. T., & Hixon, J. G. (1991). The trouble of thinking: activation and application of stereotypic beliefs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 509–517.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  151. Giles, H., Bourhis, R. Y., & Taylor, D. M. (1977). Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In H. Giles (Ed.), Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations (pp. 307–348). London: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  152. Gil-White, F. J. (2001). Are ethnic groups biological “species” to the human brain? Current Anthropology, 42, 515–536.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  153. Gintis, H. (2000). Strong reciprocity and human sociality. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 206, 169–179.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  154. Glazer, N., & Moynihan, D. P. (1975). Introduction. In N. Glazer & D. P. Moynihan (Eds.), Ethnicity: Theory and experience (pp. 1–2611). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  155. Goodall, J. (1986). The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of behavior. Cambridge: Belknap.

    Google Scholar 

  156. Granovetter, M. (1983). The strength of weak ties: a network theory revisited. Social Theory, 1, 201–233.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  157. Grove, M. (2010). The archaeology of group size. In R. I. M. Dunbar, C. Gamble, & J. Gowlett (Eds.), Social brain, distributed mind (pp. 391–413). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  158. Grove, M., Pearce, E., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2012). Fission-fusion and the evolution of hominin social systems. Journal of Human Evolution, 62, 191–200.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  159. Gutkind, P. C. W. (Ed.). (1970). The passing of tribal man in Africa. Leiden: Brill.

    Google Scholar 

  160. Hamilton, D. L., Sherman, S. J., & Castelli, L. (2002). A group by any other name: the role of entitativity in group perception. European Review of Social Psychology, 12, 139–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  161. Hamilton, M. J., Milne, B. T., Walker, R. S., Burger, O., & Brown, J. H. (2007). The complex structure of hunter-gatherer social networks. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274, 2195–2202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  162. Hammond, R. A., & Axelrod, R. (2006). The evolution of ethnocentrism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50, 926–936.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  163. Hare, B., & Kwetuenda, S. (2010). Bonobos voluntarily share their own food with others. Current Biology, 20, R230–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  164. Harrington, F. H., & Mech, D. L. (1979). Wolf howling and its role in territory maintenance. Behaviour, 68, 207–249.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  165. Harris, L. T., & Fiske, S. T. (2006). Dehumanizing the lowest of the low: neuro-imaging responses to extreme outgroups. Psychological Science, 17, 847–853.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  166. Hart, C. M., & van Vugt, M. (2006). From fault line to group fission: understanding membership changes in small groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 392–404.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  167. Hassin, R. R., Ferguson, M. J., Shidlovski, D., & Gross, L. (2007). Subliminal exposure to national flags affects political thought and behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 104, 19757–19761.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  168. Hauber, M. E., & Sherman, P. W. (2001). Self-referent phenotype matching: theoretical considerations and empirical evidence. Trends in Neurosciences, 24, 609–616.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  169. Hauser, M. D., Cheney, D. L., & Seyfarth, R. M. (1986). Group extinction and fusion in free-ranging vervet monkeys. American Journal of Primatology, 11, 63–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  170. Hayden, B. (1987). Alliances and ritual ecstasy: human responses to resource stress. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 26, 81–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  171. Heinz, H. J. (1979). The nexus complex among the !Xo Bushmen of Botswana. Anthropos, 74, 465–480.

    Google Scholar 

  172. Helwig, C. C., & Prencipe, A. (1999). Children’s judgments of flags and flag-burning. Child Development, 70, 132–143.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  173. Henn, B. M., Gignoux, C. R., Jobin, M., Granka, J. M., Macpherson, J. M., Kidd, J. M., et al. (2011). Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 108, 5154–5162.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  174. Henrich, J. (2004a). Cultural group selection, coevolutionary processes and large-scale cooperation. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 53, 3–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  175. Henrich, J. (2004b). Demography and cultural evolution: how adaptive cultural processes can produce maladaptive losses—the Tasmanian case. American Antiquity, 69, 197–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  176. Henrich, J., & Boyd, R. (1998). The evolution of conformist transmission and the emergence of between-group differences. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19, 215–241.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  177. Henrich, J., Ensminger, J., McElreath, R., Barr, A., Barrett, C., Bolyanatz, A., et al. (2010). Markets, religion, community size, and the evolution of fairness and punishment. Science, 327, 1480–1484.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  178. Henshilwood, C. S., & d’Errico, F. (2011). Middle Stone Age engravings and their significance to the debate on the emergence of symbolic material culture. In C. S. Henshilwood & F. d’Errico (Eds.), Homo symbolicus: The dawn of language, imagination and spirituality (pp. 75–96). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Google Scholar 

  179. Herbinger, I., Papworth, S., Boesch, C., & Zuberbühler, K. (2009). Vocal, gestural and locomotor responses of wild chimpanzees to familiar and unfamiliar intruders: a playback study. Animal Behaviour, 78, 1389–1396.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  180. Hewlett, B. S., van de Koppel, J. M. H., & Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (1986). Exploration and mating range of Aka pygmies of the Central African Republic. In L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (Ed.), African Pygmies (pp. 65–79). New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  181. Hewstone, M., Rubin, M., & Willis, H. (2002). Intergroup bias. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 575–604.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  182. Hiatt, L. R. (1996). Arguments about Aborigines: Australia and the evolution of social anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  183. Hill, K. R., Walker, R. S., Božičević, M., Eder, J., Headland, T., Hewlett, B., et al. (2011). Co-residence patterns in hunter-gatherer societies show unique human social structure. Science, 331, 1286–1289.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  184. Hogg, M. A. (2000). Subjective uncertainty reduction through self-categorization: a motivational theory of social identity processes. European Review of Social Psychology, 11, 223–255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  185. Hogg, M. A. (2006). Social identity theory. In P. J. Burke (Ed.), Contemporary social psychological theories (pp. 111–136). Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  186. Hogg, M. A., & Abrams, D. (1998). Social identifications. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  187. Hogg, M. A., & Turner, J. C. (1985). Interpersonal attraction, social identification and psychological group formation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 51–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  188. Hölldobler, B., & Wilson, E. O. (2009). The superorganism: The beauty, elegance, and strangeness of insect societies. New York: W. W. Norton.

    Google Scholar 

  189. Holloway, R. L., Jr. (1968). Human aggression: The need for a species-specific framework. In M. H. Fried, M. Harris, & R. F. Murphy (Eds.), War: The anthropology of armed conflict and aggression (pp. 29–48). New York: National History Press.

    Google Scholar 

  190. Homer-Dixon, T. F. (1994). Environmental scarcities and violent conflict: evidence from cases. International Security, 19, 5–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  191. Hornsey, M. J., & Hogg, M. A. (2000). Assimilation and diversity: an integrative model of subgroup relations. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 143–156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  192. Horowitz, D. L. (1985). Ethnic groups in conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  193. Huxley, A. (1959). The human situation. New York: Triad Panther.

    Google Scholar 

  194. Ihara, Y. (2011). Evolution of culture-dependent discriminate sociality: a gene-culture coevolutionary model. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 366, 889–900.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  195. Ingold, T. (1999). On the social relations of the hunter-gatherer band. In R. B. Lee & R. Daly (Eds.), The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers (pp. 399–410). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  196. Irons, W. (2001). Religion as a hard-to-fake sign of commitment. In R. M. Nesse (Ed.), Evolution and the capacity for commitment (pp. 292–309). New York: Russell Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  197. Irwin, C. J. (1987). A study in the evolution of ethnocentrism. In V. Reynolds, V. S. E. Falger, & I. Vine (Eds.), The sociobiology of ethnocentrism (pp. 131–156). London: Croom Helm.

    Google Scholar 

  198. Jetten, J., & Hornsey, M. J. (2011). Rebels in groups: Dissent, deviance, difference, and defiance. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  199. Johnson, G. A. (1982). Organizational structure and scalar stress. In C. Renfrew, M. J. Rowlands, & B. A. Segraves (Eds.), Theory and explanation in archaeology (pp. 389–421). New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  200. Johnson, G. R. (1997). The evolutionary roots of patriotism. In D. Bar-Tal & E. Staub (Eds.), Patriotism in the lives of individuals and nations (pp. 45–90). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  201. Johnson, A. W., & Earle, T. (2000). The evolution of human societies: From foraging group to agrarian state (2nd ed.). Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  202. Johnston, R. E., & Bullock, T. A. (2001). Individual recognition by use of odours in golden hamsters: The nature of individual representations. Animal Behaviour, 61, 545–557.

    Google Scholar 

  203. Jones, E. E., Farina, A., Hastori, A. H., Markus, H., Miller, D. T., & Scott, R. A. (1984). Social stigma: The psychology of marked relationships. New York: W. H. Freeman.

    Google Scholar 

  204. Judd, C. M., & Park, B. (1988). Out-group homogeneity: judgments of variability at the individual and group levels. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 778–788.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  205. Kano, T. (1992). The last ape: Pygmy chimpanzee behavior and ecology. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  206. Kelly, R. L. (1995). The foraging spectrum: Diversity in hunter-gatherer lifeways. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

    Google Scholar 

  207. Kelly, D. (2011). Yuck! The nature and moral significance of disgust. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  208. Kemmelmeier, M., & Winter, D. G. (2008). Sowing patriotism, but reaping nationalism? Consequences of exposure to the American flag. Political Psychology, 29, 859–879.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  209. Kinder, D. R., & Sears, D. O. (1981). Prejudice and politics: symbolic racism versus racial threats to the good life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 414–431.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  210. Kinzler, K. D., Dupoux, E., & Spelke, E. S. (2007). The native language of social cognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 104, 12577–12580.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  211. Kinzler, K. D., Corriveau, K. H., & Harris, P. L. (2010). Children’s selective trust in native-accented speakers. Developmental Science, 14, 106–111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  212. Kirby, S. (2000). Syntax without natural selection: How compositionality emerges from vocabulary in a population of learners. In C. Knight, M. Studdert-Kennedy, & J. R. Hurford (Eds.), The evolutionary emergence of language: Social function and the origins of linguistic form (pp. 303–323). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  213. Kosse, K. (1990). Group size and societal complexity: thresholds in the long-term memory. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 9, 275–303.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  214. Kosse, K. (1994). The evolution of large, complex groups: a hypothesis. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 13, 35–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  215. Krebs, D. L., & Denton, K. (1997). Social illusions and self-deception: The evolution of biases in person perception. In J. A. Simpson & D. T. Kenrick (Eds.), Evolutionary social psychology (pp. 21–47). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  216. Kudo, H., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2001). Neocortex size and social network size in primates. Animal Behaviour, 62, 711–722.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  217. Kuhn, S. L., Stiner, M. C., Reese, D. S., & Güleç, E. (2001). Ornaments of the earliest Upper Paleolithic: new insights from the Levant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 98, 7641–7646.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  218. Kulick, D. (1992). Language shift and cultural reproduction: Socialization, self, and syncretism in a Papua New Guinea village. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  219. Kurzban, R., & Leary, M. R. (2001). Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: the functions of social exclusion. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 187–208.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  220. Kurzban, R., Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (2001). Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and categorization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 98, 15387–15392.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  221. Labov, W. (1972). Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

    Google Scholar 

  222. Lacey, E. A., & Sherman, P. W. (1997). Cooperative breeding in naked mole-rats: Implications for vertebrate and invertebrate sociality. In N. G. Solomon & J. A. French (Eds.), Cooperative breeding in mammals (pp. 267–301). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  223. Lamont, M., & Molnar, V. (2002). The study of boundaries in the social sciences. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 167–195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  224. Layton, R., & O’Hara, S. (2010). Human social evolution: A comparison of hunter-gatherer and chimpanzee social organisation. In R. I. M. Dunbar, C. Gamble, & J. Gowlett (Eds.), Social brain, distributed mind (pp. 83–114). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  225. Lee, R. B. (1979). The !Kung San: Men, women, and work in a foraging society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  226. Lee, R. B., & Daly, R. (1999). Introduction: Foragers and others. In R. B. Lee & R. Daly (Eds.), The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers (pp. 1–19). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  227. Lee, R. B., & DeVore, I. (Eds.). (1968). Man the hunter. Chicago: Aldine.

    Google Scholar 

  228. Lehmann, J., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2009). Network cohesion, group size and neocortex size in female-bonded Old World primates. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276, 4417–4422.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  229. Lehmann, J., Korstjens, A. H., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2007). Fission-fusion social systems as a strategy for coping with ecological constraints: a primate case. Evolutionary Ecology, 21, 613–634.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  230. LeVine, R. A., & Campbell, D. T. (1972). Ethnocentrism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes, and group behavior. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  231. Liebert, A. E., & Starks, P. T. (2004). The action component of recognition systems: a focus on the response. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 41, 747–764.

    Google Scholar 

  232. Lorenz, K. (1963). On aggression. San Diego: Harcourt Brace.

    Google Scholar 

  233. Lourandos, H. (1997). Continent of hunter-gatherers: New perspectives in Australian prehistory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  234. MacDonald, K. B. (2001). An integrative evolutionary perspective on ethnicity. Politics and the Life Sciences, 21, 67–79.

    Google Scholar 

  235. Machalek, R. (1992). The evolution of macrosociety: why are large societies rare? Advances in Human Ecology, 1, 33–64.

    Google Scholar 

  236. Mackie, D. M., Devos, T., & Smith, E. R. (2000). Intergroup emotions: explaining offensive action tendencies in an intergroup context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 602–616.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  237. Macrae, C. N., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2000). Social cognition: thinking categorically about others. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 93–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  238. Mahajan, N., Martinez, M. A., Gutierrez, N. L., Diesendruck, G., Banaji, M. R., & Santos, L. R. (2011). The evolution of intergroup bias: perceptions and attitudes in rhesus macaques. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 387–405.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  239. Malik, I., Seth, P. K., & Southwick, C. H. (1985). Group fission in free-ranging rhesus monkeys of Tughlaqabad, northern India. International Journal of Primatology, 6, 411–422.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  240. Marks, J., & Staski, E. (1988). Individuals and the evolution of biological and cultural systems. Human Evolution, 3, 147–161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  241. Marlowe, F. W. (2005). Hunter-gatherers and human evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology, 14, 54–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  242. Marlowe, F. W. (2010). The Hadza: Hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  243. Marques, J. M., Yzerbyt, V. Y., & Leyens, J.-P. (1988). The “black sheep effect:” extremity of judgments towards ingroup members as a function of group identification. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 1–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  244. Marsh, A. A., Elfenbein, A., & Ambady, N. (2003). Nonverbal “accents”: cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. Psychological Science, 14, 373–376.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  245. Marshack, A. (1990). Early hominid symbol and evolution of the human capacity. In P. Mellars (Ed.), The emergence of modern humans: An archaeological perspective (pp. 457–499). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  246. Marshall, A. J., Wrangham, R. W., & Arcadi, A. C. (1999). Does learning affect the structure of vocalizations in chimpanzees? Animal Behaviour, 58, 825–830.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  247. Martin, C. L., & Parker, S. (1995). Folk theories about sex and race differences. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 45–57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  248. Marwick, B. (2003). Pleistocene exchange networks as evidence for the evolution of language. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 13, 67–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  249. McBrearty, S., & Brooks, A. S. (2000). The revolution that wasn’t: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. Journal of Human Evolution, 39, 453–563.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  250. McComb, K., Packer, C., & Pusey, A. (1994). Roaring and numerical assessment in contests between groups of female lions, Panthera leo. Animal Behaviour, 47, 379–387.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  251. McConvell, P. (2001). Language shift and language spread among hunter-gatherers. In C. Panter-Brick, P. Rowley-Conwy, & R. Layton (Eds.), Hunter-gatherers: Cultural and biological perspectives (pp. 143–169). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  252. McDonald, M. M., Navarrete, C. D., & van Vugt, M. (2012). Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: the male warrior hypothesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 367, 670–679.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  253. McElreath, R., Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (2003). Shared norms and the evolution of ethnic markers. Current Anthropology, 44, 122–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  254. McGrew, W. C. (2012). Pan symbolicus: A cultural primatologist’s viewpoint. In C. S. Henshilwood & F. Dd’Errico (Eds.), Homo symbolicus: The dawn of language, imagination and spirituality (pp. 1–12). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Google Scholar 

  255. McGrew, W. C., & Tutin, C. E. G. (1978). Evidence for a social custom in wild chimpanzees? Man (n.s.), 13, 234–251.

    Google Scholar 

  256. Meggitt, M. J. (1962). Desert people: A study of the Walbiri Aborigines of central Australia. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

    Google Scholar 

  257. Mesterton-Gibbons, M., Gavrilets, S., Gravner, J., & Akçay, E. (2011). Models of coalition or alliance formation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 274, 187–204.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  258. Milinski, M., Semmann, D., & Krambeck, H. J. (2002). Reputation helps solve the “tragedy of the commons”. Nature, 415, 424–426.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  259. Mitani, J. C., & Amsler, S. J. (2003). Social and spatial aspects of male subgrouping in a community of wild chimpanzees. Behaviour, 140, 869–884.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  260. Mitani, J. C., & Gros-Louis, J. (1998). Chorusing and call convergence in chimpanzees: tests of three hypotheses. Behaviour, 135, 1041–1064.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  261. Moffett, M. W. (2000). What’s “up?” A critical look at the basic terms of canopy biology. Biotropica, 32, 569–596.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  262. Moffett, M. W. (2010). Adventures among ants. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  263. Moffett, M. W. (2011). Ants and the art of war. Scientific American, 305, 84–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  264. Moffett, M. W. (2012). Supercolonies of billions in an invasive ant: what is a society? Behavioral Ecology, 23, 925–933.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  265. Muller, M. N., & Wrangham, R. W. (2001). The reproductive ecology of male hominoids. In P. T. Ellison (Ed.), Reproductive ecology and human evolution (pp. 397–427). Chicago: Aldine de Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  266. Mulvaney, D. J. (1976). The chain of connection: The material evidence. In N. Peterson (Ed.), Tribes and boundaries in Australia (pp. 72–94). Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press.

    Google Scholar 

  267. Nakamura, M., & Uehara, S. (2004). Proximate factors of different types of grooming hand-clasp in Mahale chimpanzees: implications for chimpanzee social customs. Current Anthropology, 45, 108–114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  268. Naroll, R. (1956). A preliminary index of social development. American Anthropologist, 58, 687–715.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  269. Nazzi, T., Jusczyk, P. W., & Johnson, E. K. (2000). Language discrimination by English-learning 5-month-olds: effects of rhythm and familiarity. Journal of Memory and Language, 43, 1–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  270. Nettle, D. (1999). Language variation and the evolution of societies. In R. I. M. Dunbar, C. Knight, & C. Power (Eds.), The evolution of culture: An interdisciplinary view (pp. 214–227). Piscataway: Rutgers University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  271. Nettle, D., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (1997). Social markers and the evolution of reciprocal exchange. Current Anthropology, 38, 93–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  272. Newell, R. R., Kielman, D., Constandse-Westermann, T. S., van der Sanden, W. A. B., & van Gijn, A. (1990). An inquiry into the ethnic resolution of Mesolithic regional groups: The study of their decorative ornaments in time and space. Leiden: Brill.

    Google Scholar 

  273. Nousek, A. E., Slater, P. J. B., Wang, C., & Miller, P. J. O. (2006). The influence of social affiliation on individual vocal signatures of northern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca). Biology Letters, 2, 481–484.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  274. Nowak, M. A., & Sigmund, K. (1998). Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring. Nature, 393, 573–577.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  275. Nowak, M. A., Tarnita, C. E., & Wilson, E. O. (2010). The evolution of eusociality. Nature, 466, 1057–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  276. Nowicki, S. (1983). Flock-specific recognition of chickadee calls. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 12, 317–320.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  277. Okamoto, K. (2004). Patterns of group fission. In B. Thierry, M. Singh, & W. Kaumanns (Eds.), Macaque societies: A model for the study of social organization (pp. 112–116). Cambridge: Cambridge University.

    Google Scholar 

  278. Okamoto, K., & Matsumura, S. (2001). Group fission in Moor macaques (Macaca maurus). International Journal of Primatology, 22, 481–493.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  279. Oliver, D. L. (1955). Solomon Island society: Kinship and leadership among the Siuai of Bougainville. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  280. Pagel, M. (2009). Human language as a culturally transmitted replicator. Nature Reviews Genetics, 10, 405–415.

    Google Scholar 

  281. Pagel, M., & Mace, R. (2004). The cultural wealth of nations. Nature, 428, 275–278.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  282. Parr, L. A., & de Waal, F. B. M. (1999). Visual kin recognition in chimpanzees. Nature, 399, 647–648.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  283. Pedersen, J. S., Krieger, M. J. B., Vogel, V., Giraud, T., & Keller, L. (2006). Native supercolonies of unrelated individuals in the invasive Argentine ant. Evolution, 60, 782–791.

    Google Scholar 

  284. Peterson, N. (Ed.). (1976). Tribes and boundaries in Australia. Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press.

    Google Scholar 

  285. Pettitt, P. (2012). The living as symbols, the dead as symbols. In C. S. Henshilwood & F. Dd’Errico (Eds.), Homo symbolicus: The dawn of language, imagination and spirituality (pp. 141–162). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Google Scholar 

  286. Pinker, S. (2011). Better angels of our nature: Why violence has declined. New York: Viking.

    Google Scholar 

  287. Pokorny, J. J., & de Waal, F. M. B. (2009). Monkeys recognize the faces of group mates in photographs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 106, 21539–21543.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  288. Powell, A., Shennan, S., & Thomas, M. G. (2009). Late Pleistocene demography and the appearance of modern human behavior. Science, 324, 1298–1301.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  289. Premo, L. S., & Hublin, J.-J. (2009). Culture, population structure, and low genetic diversity in Pleistocene hominins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 106, 33–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  290. Prentice, D. A., Miller, D. T., & Lightdale, J. R. (1994). Asymmetries in attachments to groups and to their members: distinguishing between common-identity and common-bond groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 484–493.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  291. Prud’Homme, J. (1991). Group fission in a semifree-ranging population of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Primates, 32, 9–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  292. Randić, S., Connor, R. C., Sherwin, W. B., & Krützen, M. (2012). A novel mammalian social structure in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.): complex male alliances in an open social network. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279, 3083–3090.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  293. Rappaport, R. A. (1984). Pigs for the ancestors: Ritual in the ecology of a New Guinea people (2nd ed.). Long Grove: Waveland Press.

    Google Scholar 

  294. Read, D. W. (2011). How culture makes us human. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.

    Google Scholar 

  295. Ren, B., Li, D., Garber, P. A., & Li, M. (2011). Fission-fusion behavior in Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in Yunnan, China. International Journal of Primatology, 33, 1096–1109.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  296. Reynolds, V. (1966). Open groups in hominid evolution. Man (n.s.), 1, 441–452.

    Google Scholar 

  297. Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (1998). The evolution of human ultra-sociality. In I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt & F. K. Salter (Eds.), Indoctrinability, ideology, and warfare: Evolutionary perspectives (pp. 71–95). Oxford: Berghahn.

    Google Scholar 

  298. Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (1999). Complex societies: the evolutionary origins of a crude superorganism. Human Nature, 10, 253–289.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  299. Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (2000). Climate, culture, and the evolution of cognition. In C. M. Heyes & L. Huber (Eds.), The evolution of cognition (pp. 329–346). Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  300. Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (2005). Not by genes alone: How culture transformed human evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  301. Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (2013). Rethinking paleoanthropology: a world queerer than we supposed. In G. Hatfield & H. Pittman (Ed.), Evolution of mind, brain, and culture (pp. 263–302). Penn Museum Conference Series.

  302. Richerson, P. J., Boyd, R., & Henrich, J. (2003). Cultural evolution of human cooperation. In P. Hammerstein (Ed.), Genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation (pp. 357–388). Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  303. Riolo, R. L., Cohen, M. D., & Axelrod, R. (2001). Evolution of cooperation without reciprocity. Nature, 414, 441–443.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  304. Riveros, A. J., Seid, M. A., & Wcislo, W. T. (2012). Evolution of brain size in class-based societies of fungus-growing ants (Attini). Animal Behaviour, 83, 1043–1049.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  305. Roberts, S. G. B. (2010). Constraints on social networks. In R. I. M. Dunbar, C. Gamble, & J. Gowlett (Eds.), Social brain, distributed mind (pp. 115–134). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  306. Rodseth, L., Wrangham, R. W., Harrigan, A. M., & Smuts, B. B. (1991). The human community as a primate society. Current Anthropology, 32, 221–241.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  307. Rogers, A. R. (1990). Group selection by selective emigration: the effects of migration and kin structure. American Naturalist, 135, 398–413.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  308. Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  309. Rowlands, M. (1999). The body in mind: Understanding cognitive processes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  310. Royce, A. P. (1982). Ethnic identity: Strategies of diversity. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  311. Russell, R. J. (1993). The lemurs’ legacy: The evolution of power, sex, and love. New York: Putnam.

    Google Scholar 

  312. Sani, F. (2005). When subgroups secede: extending and refining the social psychological model of schism in groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1074–1086.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  313. Sayigh, L. S., Tyack, P. L., Wells, R. S., & Scott, M. D. (1990). Signature whistles of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus: stability and mother-offspring comparisons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 26, 247–260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  314. Schacter, D. L. (1995). Memory distortion: How minds, brains, and societies reconstruct the past. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  315. Sears, D. O. (2001). Role of affect in symbolic politics. In J. H. Kuklinski (Ed.), Citizens and politics: Perspectives from political psychology (pp. 14–40). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  316. Seyfarth, R. M., & Cheney, D. L. (2013a). The evolution of concepts about agents. Or, what do animals recognize when they recognize an individual? In E. Margolis & S. Laurence (Eds.), Concepts: New directions. Cambridge: MIT Press (in press).

  317. Seyfarth, R. M., & Cheney, D. L. (2013b). The evolution of concepts about agents. In M. R. Banaji & S. A. Gelman (Eds.), Navigating the social world: What infants, children, and other species can teach us. Oxford: Oxford University Press (In press).

    Google Scholar 

  318. Shennan, S. (2001). Demography and cultural innovation: a model and its implications for the emergence of modern human culture. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 11, 5–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  319. Sherman, P. W., Reeve, H. K., & Pfennig, D. W. (1997). Recognition systems. In J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies (Eds.), Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach (pp. 69–96). Oxford: Blackwell Science.

    Google Scholar 

  320. Smith, A. D. (2010). Nationalism (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press.

    Google Scholar 

  321. Smith, F. H. (2013). The fate of the Neandertals. Journal of Anthropological Research, 62, 167–200.

    Google Scholar 

  322. Smith, E. R., & Henry, S. (1996). An in-group becomes part of the self: response time evidence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 635–642.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  323. Smith, E. R., Seger, C. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2007). Can emotions be truly group-level? Evidence regarding four conceptual criteria. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 431–446.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  324. Sosis, R. (2003). What aren’t we all Hutterites? Costly signaling theory and religious behavior. Human Nature, 14, 91–127.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  325. Sosis, R., Kress, H. C., & Boster, J. S. (2007). Scars for war: evaluating alternative signaling explanations for cross-cultural variance in ritual scars. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 234–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  326. Southwick, C. H., Siddiqi, M. F., Farooqui, M. Y., & Pal, B. C. (1974). Xenophobia among free-ranging rhesus groups in India. In R. L. Holloway (Ed.), Primate aggression, territoriality, and xenophobia: A comparative perspective (pp. 185–209). New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  327. Spector, L., & Klein, J. (2006). Genetic stability and territorial structure facilitate the evolution of tag-mediated altruism. Artificial Life, 12, 553–560.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  328. Sperber, D., & Hirschfeld, L. A. (2004). The cognitive foundations of cultural stability and diversity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 40–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  329. Spicer, E. H. (1971). Persistent cultural systems: a comparative study of identity systems that can adapt to contrasting environments. Science, 174, 795–800.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  330. Stanner, W. E. H. (1956). The dreaming: An Australian world view. In T. A. G. Hungerford & F. W. Cheshire (Eds.), Australian signpost, an anthology (pp. 51–65). Melbourne: Cheshire.

    Google Scholar 

  331. Stephan, E. G., & Stephan, C. W. (1985). Intergroup anxiety. Journal of Social Issues, 41, 157–175.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  332. Stiner, M. C., & Kuhn, S. L. (2006). Changes in the “connectedness” and resilience of Paleolithic societies in Mediterranean ecosystems. Human Ecology, 34, 693–712.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  333. Stringer, C. (2012). Lone survivors: How we came to be the only humans on earth. NY: Times Books.

    Google Scholar 

  334. Sueur, C., Deneubourg, J.-L., Petit, O., & Couzin, I. D. (2011). Group size, grooming and fission in primates: a modeling approach based on group structure. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 273, 156–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  335. Sumner, W. G. (1906). Folkways. Boston: Ginn.

    Google Scholar 

  336. Sutton, P. J. (1991). Language in Aboriginal Australia: Social dialects in a geographic idiom. In S. Romaine (Ed.), Language in Australia (pp. 49–66). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  337. Swann, W. B., Jr., Jetten, J., Gómez, A., Whitehouse, H., & Bastian, B. (2012). When group membership gets personal: A theory of identity fusion. Psychological Review, 119, 441–456.

    Google Scholar 

  338. Syal, S., & Finlay, B. L. (2011). Thinking outside the cortex: social motivation in the evolution and development of language. Developmental Science, 14, 417–430.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  339. Taglialatela, J. P., Russell, J. L., Schaeffer, J. A., & Hopkins, W. D. (2009). Visualizing vocal perception in the chimpanzee brain. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 1151–1157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  340. Tajfel, H., Nemeth, C., Jahoda, G., Campbell, J., & Johnson, N. (1970). The development of children’s preference for their own country: a cross national study. International Journal of Psychology, 5, 245–253.

    Google Scholar 

  341. Tattersall, I. (2012). Masters of the planet: The search for our human origins. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  342. Tennie, C., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Ratcheting up the ratchet: on the evolution of cumulative culture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 364, 2405–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  343. Texier, J.-P., Porraz, G., Parkington, J., Rigauda, J.-P., Poggenpoel, C., Miller, C., et al. (2010). A Howiesons Poort tradition of engraving ostrich eggshell containers dated to 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof Rock Shelter, South Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 107, 6180–6185.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  344. Thurston, W. R. (1989). How exoteric languages build a lexicon: Esoterogeny in West New Britain. In R. Harlow & R. Hooper (Eds.), VICAL 1: Oceanic languages. Papers from the fifth international conference on Austronesian linguistics, Auckland, New Zealand, January 1988 (pp. 555–579). Auckland: Linguistic Society of New Zealand.

    Google Scholar 

  345. Tinbergen, N. (1951). The study of instinct. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  346. Tindale, N. B. (1974). Aboriginal tribes of Australia: Their terrain, environmental controls, distribution, limits, and proper names. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  347. Titiev, M. (1944). Old Oraibi: A study of the Hopi Indians of the Third Mesa. Cambridge: Peabody Museum. Paper 22.

    Google Scholar 

  348. Tonkinson, R. (2011). Landscape, transformations, and immutability in an Aboriginal Australian Culture. Cultural Memories, 4, 329–345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  349. Tsutsui, N. D. (2004). Scents of self: the expression component of self/nonself recognition systems. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 41, 713–727.

    Google Scholar 

  350. Turner, V. W. (1957). Schism and continuity in an African society: A study of Ndembu village life. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  351. Turner, J. C. (1981). The experimental social psychology of intergroup behavior. In J. C. Turner & H. Giles (Eds.), Intergroup behavior (pp. 66–101). Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  352. Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., & Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  353. van den Berghe, P. L. (1981). The ethnic phenomenon. New York: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  354. van der Dennen, J. M. G. (1987). Ethnocentrism and in-group/out-group differentiation: A review and interpretation of the literature. In V. Reynolds, V. S. E. Falger, & I. Vine (Eds.), The sociobiology of ethnocentrism: Evolutionary dimensions of xenophobia, discrimination, racism, and nationalism (pp. 1–47). London: Croom Helm.

    Google Scholar 

  355. van der Dennen, J. M. G. (1991). Studies of conflict. In M. Maxwell (Ed.), The sociobiological imagination (pp. 223–241). Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  356. van der Dennen, J. M. G. (1999). Of badges, bonds, and boundaries: In-group/Out-group differentiation and ethnocentrism revisited. In K. Thienpont & R. Cliquet (Eds.), In-group/out-group behavior in modern societies: An evolutionary perspective (pp. 37–74). Amsterdam: Vlaamse Gemeeschap/CBGS.

    Google Scholar 

  357. Van Horn, R. C., Buchan, J. C., Altmann, J., & Alberts, S. C. (2007). Divided destinies: group choice by female savannah baboons during social group fission. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 61, 1823–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  358. van Schaik, C. P. (1983). Why are diurnal primates living in groups? Behaviour, 87, 120–144.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  359. van Schaik, C. P., Ancrenaz, M., Brogen, G., Galdikas, B., Knott, C. D., Singleton, I., et al. (2003). Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture. Science, 299, 102–105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  360. Vanhaeren, M., & d’Errico, F. (2006). Aurignacian ethno-linguistic geography of Europe revealed by personal ornaments. Journal of Archaeological Science, 33, 1105–1128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  361. Weinstein, E. A. (1957). Development of the concept of flag and the sense of national identity. Child Development, 28, 167–174.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  362. Wells, P. S. (1998). Identity and material culture in the later prehistory of Central Europe. Journal of Archaeological Research, 6, 239–298.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  363. Whallon, R. (2006). Social networks and information: non-‘utilitarian’ mobility among hunter-gatherers. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 25, 259–270.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  364. Whiten, A. (2011). The scope of culture in chimpanzees, humans and ancestral apes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 366, 997–1007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  365. Whiten, A., Goodall, J., MvGrew, W. C., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Sugiyama, Y., et al. (1999). Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature, 399, 682–685.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  366. Widdig, A., Nürnberg, P., Bercovitch, F. B., Trefilov, A., Berard, J. B., Kessler, M. J., et al. (2006). Consequences of group fission for the patterns of relatedness among rhesus macaques. Molecular Ecology, 15, 3825–3832.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  367. Wiessner, P. W. (1977). Hxaro: A regional system of reciprocity for reducing risk among the !Kung San. Ph.D. thesis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

    Google Scholar 

  368. Wiessner, P. (1983). Style and social information in Kalahari San projectile points. American Antiquity, 48, 253–276.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  369. Willhoite, F. H., Jr. (1977). Evolution and collective intolerance. Journal of Politics, 39, 667–684.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  370. Williams, J. M., Lonsdorf, E. V., Wilson, M. L., Schumacher-Stankey, J., Goodall, J., & Pusey, A. E. (2008). Causes of death in the Kasekela chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. American Journal of Primatology, 70, 766–777.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  371. Wilshusen, R. H., & Potter, J. M. (2010). The emergence of early villages in the American Southwest: Cultural issues and historical perspectives. In M. S. Bandy & J. R. Fox (Eds.), Becoming villagers: Comparing early village societies (pp. 165–183). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

    Google Scholar 

  372. Wilson, E. O. (1975). Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge: Belknap.

    Google Scholar 

  373. Wilson, R. A. (2005). Collective memory, group minds, and the extended mind thesis. Cognitive Processing, 6, 227–236.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  374. Wilson, M. L., Hauser, M. D., & Wrangham, R. W. (2001). Does participation in intergroup conflict depend on numerical assessment, range location, or rank for wild chimpanzees? Animal Behaviour, 61, 1203–1216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  375. Wobst, H. M. (1974). Boundary conditions for Paleolithic social systems: a simulation approach. American Antiquity, 39, 147–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  376. Wobst, H. M. (1976). Locational relationship in Paleolithic society. Journal of Human Evolution, 5, 49–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  377. Wobst, H. M. (1977). Stylistic behavior and information exchange. In C. E. Cleland (Ed.), Papers for the Director: Research essays in honor of James B. Griffin (pp. 317–342). Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.

    Google Scholar 

  378. Woodburn, J. (1982). Egalitarian societies. Man (n.s.), 17, 431–451.

    Google Scholar 

  379. Wrangham, R. W. (1980). An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour, 75, 262–300.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  380. Wrangham, R. W. (1987). The significance of African apes for reconstructing human social evolution. In W. G. Kinzey (Ed.), The evolution of human behavior: Primate models (pp. 51–71). Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  381. Wrangham, R. W., & Glowacki, L. (2012). Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and war in nomadic hunter-gatherers: evaluating the chimpanzee model. Human Nature, 23, 5–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  382. Wrangham, R. W., & Peterson, D. (1996). Demonic males: Apes and the origins of human violence. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

    Google Scholar 

  383. Yamagiwa, J. (1985). Socio-sexual factors of troop fission in wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Primates, 26, 105–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  384. Zahavi, A., & Zahavi, A. (1997). The handicap principle: A missing piece of Darwin’s puzzle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  385. Zayan, R., & Vauclair, J. (1998). Categories as paradigms for comparative cognition. Behavioral Processes, 42, 87–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  386. Zhou, W.-X., Sornette, D., Hill, R. A., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2005). Discrete hierarchical organization of social group sizes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272, 439–444.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This attempt at a framework for research on the nature and limits of human societies required the advice of experts who proved enthusiastic and generous with their time, from reading drafts of the text to answering my naive questions: John Alcock, Coren Apicella, Eduardo Araral, Jr., Jeanne Arnold, Filippo Aureli, Robert Axelrod, Serge Bahuchet, Mahzarin Banaji, Deirdre Barrett, Fiona Barlow, Roy Baumeister, Isabel Behncke-Izquierdo, Luís Bettencourt, Galen Bodenhausen, Barry Bogin, Sam Bowles, Rob Boyd, Jack Bradbury, Lauren Brent, Marilynn Brewer, David Allen Butz, Elizabeth Cashdan, Emanuele Castano, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Colin Chapman, Emma Cohen, Richard Cosgrove, Iain Couzin, Francesco d’Errico, Frans de Waal, Robert Dixon, Norman Doidge, Michael R. Dove, Carsten De Dreu, Robert Dudley, Rob Dunn, Timothy Earle, Susan Fiske, Kent Flannery, Doug Fry, Takeshi Furuichi, Azar Gat, Mark Granovetter, Matt Grove, Marcus Hamilton, Mark Hauber, Brian Hayden, Larisa Heiphetz, Joe Henrich, Kim Hill, Michael Hogg, Kay Holekamp, Yasuo Ihara, Vincent Janik, Allen Johnson, Robert Kelly, Katherine Kinzler, Simon Kirby, Ian Kuijt, Rob Kurzban, Julia Lehmann, Frank Marlowe, Andrew Marshall, Curtis Marean, José Marques, Ben Marwick, Sally McBrearty, W. C. McGrew, John Mitani, Craig Packer, Stefania Paolini, William Parkinson, Irene Pepperberg, Dale Peterson, Thomas Pettigrew, Adam Powell, Luke Premo, Diana Reiss, Ger Reesink, Peter Richerson, Gareth Roberts, Michael Rosenberg, Mark Rubin, Richard Russell, Fabio Sani, Laurie Santos, Robert Sapolsky, Kenneth Sassaman, Jr., Colleen Schaffner, Carmel Schrire, Robert Seyfarth, Paul Sherman, Peter Slater, Anthony Smith, Magdalena Sorger, Lee Spector, Elizabeth Spelke, Charles Stanish, Mary Stiner, Frank Sulloway, Jared Taglialatela, John Terborgh, Neil Tsutsui, Sean Ulm, Athena Vouloumanos, Fiona Walsh, Polly Wiessner, Gerald Wilkinson, Edward O. Wilson, Richard Wrangham, Patricia Wright, Karen Wynn, and Vincent Yzerbyt. Writerly friends Daniel Bennett, Nick Griffin, Ken Kamler, and Melissa Wells helped polish the prose. I dedicate this article to Ed Wilson, out of respect for his poetic spirit, his decades of building creative ideas across the sciences, and his tireless support of so many careers, mine included.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mark W. Moffett.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Moffett, M.W. Human Identity and the Evolution of Societies. Hum Nat 24, 219–267 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-013-9170-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Coalitions
  • Fission-fusion
  • Hunter-gatherers
  • Language
  • Outgroups
  • Nationalism
  • Social learning
  • Symbols
  • Tribes
  • Xenophobia