Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategy are Related to Views about Recreational Drug Use in Belgium, The Netherlands, and Japan

Abstract

Individual differences in moral views are often explained as the downstream effect of ideological commitments, such as political orientation and religiosity. Recent studies in the U.S. suggest that moral views about recreational drug use are also influenced by attitudes toward sex and that this relationship cannot be explained by ideological commitments. In this study, we investigate student samples from Belgium, The Netherlands, and Japan. We find that, in all samples, sexual attitudes are strongly related to views about recreational drug use, even after controlling for various ideological variables. We discuss our results in light of reproductive strategies as determinants of moral views.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    http://www.standaard.be/extra/verkiezingen/stemtest/ (Accessed 10 December 2011)

  2. 2.

    http://www.stemwijzer.nl/TweedeKamer2010/index.html (Accessed 10 December 2011)

  3. 3.

    We assumed that buying a mobile phone for one’s children in Japan is associated with increased dating opportunities for these children, via matchmaking websites.

  4. 4.

    We thank an anonymous reviewer for calling our attention to this difference.

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Acknowledgments

KQ conducted this study as a PhD fellow of the Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO)-Vlaanderen (Research Foundation Flanders). She would like to express her gratitude to everyone who helped her recruiting participants—in particular, Wim Ghijsen, Annemie Ploeger, Peter Derkx, and many Dutch study organizations. KI would like to thank Kunihiro Yokota for his help in collecting data. We thank Dr. Sena Koleva and the anonymous reviewers for comments on this manuscript.

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Correspondence to Katinka J. P. Quintelier.

Appendices

Appendix A. Survey questions for Belgium and the Netherlands (Drug Views, Religiosity, Sexual and Nonsexual Politics)

Drug Views

Please read the statements below and rate your agreement with the items that follow. 1 = strongly disagree; 4 = neutral; 7 = strongly agree.

Eric is going to a dance party and is considering taking Ecstasy, an illegal mood-altering substance.

Using Ecstasy in this way is morally wrong: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Using Ecstasy in this way should be legally permitted: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Megan is hanging out with friends and is considering smoking cannabis, an illegal but tolerated (“gedoogd” in Dutch) mood-altering substance.

Using cannabis in this way is morally wrong: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Using cannabis in this way should be legally permitted: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

John is on vacation and is considering taking cocaine, an illegal mood-altering substance.

Using cocaine in this way is morally wrong: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Using cocaine in this way should be legally permitted: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Claudia is going out and is considering taking Speed, an illegal mood-altering substance.

Using Speed in this way is morally wrong: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Using Speed in this way should be legally permitted: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

For the following items, please rate your agreement or disagreement.

People who use recreational drugs are dirty: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
It is ok to obtain drugs for the purpose of making you feel good: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Religiosity

How religious are you? (1) Not at all religious; (4) Somewhat religious; (7) Very religious
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
How spiritual are you? (1)Not at all spiritual; (4) Somewhat spiritual; (7) Very spiritual
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

These days, which of the following best describes how often you attend religious services?

  1. (1)

    Never or almost never

  2. (2)

    A few times a year

  3. (3)

    About once a month

  4. (4)

    About every week

  5. (5)

    More than once a week

Which of the following best describes how often you pray in private, on your own?

  1. (1)

    Never or almost never

  2. (2)

    A few times a year

  3. (3)

    About once a month

  4. (4)

    About every week

  5. (5)

    Several times a week

  6. (6)

    About once a day

  7. (7)

    Several times a day

Thinking ahead, 10 or 15 years from now, how often do you think you will attend religious services?

  1. (1)

    Never or almost never

  2. (2)

    A few times a year

  3. (3)

    About once a month

  4. (4)

    About every week

  5. (5)

    More than once a week

Political items

Please indicate your level of support for the following items: (1) Strongly oppose; (4) Neutral; (7) Strongly support

Promoting the use of the Dutch language: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
More tax money to military defense: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Tougher restrictions against pornography on the Internet: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
More police guards to prevent social disorder: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
More binding EU rules to protect the environment: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Abolish the possibility of early prison release through good behavior: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
More subsidized rental homes: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Increasing(B)/Decreasing(NL) the period in which abortion is legal: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Immigration exams for immigrants: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Higher unemployment benefits for the unemployed: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
More tax money for foreign aid: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
More attention for the value of relationships during sex education in schools: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Forbidding face-covering clothing: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
To better inform and guide people with excessive debt: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Stricter punishments for people who use violence: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Homosexual couples can adopt children: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Appendix B: Survey questions for Japan (Drug Views, Religiosity, Sexual and Nonsexual Politics)

Drug Views

Please read the statements below and rate your agreement with the items that follow. 1 = Strongly Disagree; 4 = Neutral; = 7 Strongly Agree

Eiji is going to a dance party and is considering taking MDMA, an illegal mood-altering substance.

Using MDMA in this way is morally wrong. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Using MDMA in this way should be legally permitted. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Megumi is hanging out with friends and is considering smoking marijuana, an illegal mood-altering substance.

Using marijuana in this way is morally wrong. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Using marijuana in this way should be legally permitted. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Takeshi is on vacation and is considering taking cocaine, an illegal mood-altering substance.

Using cocaine in this way is morally wrong. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Using cocaine in this way should be legally permitted. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Kumi is going out and is considering taking Speed, an illegal mood-altering substance.

Using Speed in this way is morally wrong 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Using Speed in this way should be legally permitted 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

For the following items, please rate your agreement or disagreement.

People who use recreational drugs are dirty. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
It is ok to obtain drugs for the purpose of making you feel good. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Religiosity

How religious are you? (1) Not at all religious; (4) Somewhat religious; (7) Very religious
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
How spiritual are you? (1) Not at all spiritual; (4) Somewhat spiritual; (7) Very spiritual
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Which of the following best describes how often you offer incense at and put offerings on the family altar?

  1. (1)

    Never or almost never

  2. (2)

    A few times a year

  3. (3)

    About once a month

  4. (4)

    About every week

  5. (5)

    Several times a week

  6. (6)

    About once a day

  7. (7)

    Several times a day

Which of the following best describes how often you visit the family grave?

  1. (1)

    Never or almost never

  2. (2)

    A few times a year

  3. (3)

    About once a month

  4. (4)

    About every week

  5. (5)

    Several times a week

  6. (6)

    About once a day

  7. (7)

    Several times a day

Which of the following best describes how often you visit a local shrine/temple/church?

  1. (1)

    Never or almost never

  2. (2)

    A few times a year

  3. (3)

    About once a month

  4. (4)

    About every week

  5. (5)

    Several times a week

  6. (6)

    About once a day

  7. (7)

    Several times a day

Which of the following best describes how often you engage in religious activities except for the ones described above?

  1. (1)

    Never or almost never

  2. (2)

    A few times a year

  3. (3)

    About once a month

  4. (4)

    About every week

  5. (5)

    More than once a week

Thinking ahead, 10 or 15 years from now, how often do you think you will visit a local shrine/temple/church?

  1. (1)

    Never or almost never

  2. (2)

    A few times a year

  3. (3)

    About once a month

  4. (4)

    About every week

  5. (5)

    More than once a week

Thinking ahead, 10 or 15 years from now, how often do you think you will engage in other public religious activities?

  1. (1)

    Never or almost never

  2. (2)

    A few times a year

  3. (3)

    About once a month

  4. (4)

    About every week

  5. (5)

    More than once a week

Political items

Please indicate your level of support for the following items: (1) Strongly oppose; (4) Neutral; (7) Strongly support

Tougher restrictions against pornography on the Internet: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Tougher restrictions against online dating sites, from which compensated dating stems: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Paying for sex with a prostitute should be illegal: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Parents should not buy a mobile phone for their elementary school children: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Consumption tax should increase: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Tougher restrictions against smoking: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Futenma US Marine base should relocate anywhere in Okinawa: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Sanctions for North Korea should be strengthened: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Death penalty should be abolished: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Politicians’ corruption should be strictly punished: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Lifetime employment system should be ended: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Harsher punishment for violent criminals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Higher taxes for the wealthy: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Expanded stem-cell research: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Legalized marriage between homosexuals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Comprehensive sex education programs in public schools: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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Quintelier, K.J.P., Ishii, K., Weeden, J. et al. Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategy are Related to Views about Recreational Drug Use in Belgium, The Netherlands, and Japan. Hum Nat 24, 196–217 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-013-9165-0

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Keywords

  • Moral attitudes
  • Sex
  • Drugs
  • Reproductive strategy
  • Cross-cultural analysis