Human Nature

, Volume 22, Issue 1–2, pp 16–40 | Cite as

The Foundation of Kinship



Men’s hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women’s roles as critical to household formation, pair-bonding, and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be the foundation from which households evolved. With conscious recognition of household social units, variable cultural constructions of human kinship systems that were sensitive to environmental and technological conditions could emerge. Kinship dramatically altered the organization of resource access for our species, creating what we term “kinship ecologies.” We present simple mathematical models to show how hunting leads to dependence on women’s contributions, bonds men to women, and bonds generations together. Kinship, as it organized transfers of food and labor energy centered on women, also became integrated with the biological evolution of human reproduction and life history.


Household formation Kinship ecologies Women’s food processing Pair-bonds Maternal energy deficits Energy transfers Life history 


  1. Alvard, M. (2003). Kinship, lineage, and an evolutionary perspective on cooperative hunting groups in Indonesia. Human Nature, 14, 129–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, K., Kaplan, H., & Lancaster, J. (2007). Confidence of paternity, divorce, and investment in children by Albuquerque men. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker, G. (1981). Treatise on the family. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Belsky, J., Steinberg, L., & Draper, P. (1991). Childhood experience, interpersonal development and reproductive strategy: an evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development, 62, 647–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bereczkei, T., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2002). Helping-at-the-nest and sex-biased parental investment in a Hungarian Gypsy population. Current Anthropology, 43, 804–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bird, R. (1999). Cooperation and conflict. The behavioral ecology of the sexual division of labor. Evolutionary Anthropology, 8, 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bleige Bird, R., Codding, B. F., & Bird, D. (2009). What explains differences in men’s and women’s production? Determinants of gendered foraging inequalities among Martu. Human Nature, 20, 105–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bliege Bird, R., & Bird, D. (2002). Constraints of knowing or constraints of growing? Fishing and collecting by the children of Mer. Human Nature, 13, 239–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blurton Jones, N. (1987). Tolerated theft, suggestions about the ecology and evolution of sharing, hoarding and scrounging. Social Science Information, 26, 31–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blurton Jones, N., & Marlowe, F. (2002). Selection for delayed maturity. Does it take 20 years to learn to hunt and gather? Human Nature, 13, 199–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bock, J. (2002). Evolutionary demography and intrahousehold time allocation: school attendance and child labor among the Okavango Delta peoples of Botswana. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 14, 206–221.Google Scholar
  12. Bogin, B. (1999). Evolutionary perspective on human growth. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28, 109–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (1990). Kipsigis women’s preferences for wealthy men: evidence for female choice in mammals? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 27, 255–264.Google Scholar
  14. Borgerhoff Mulder, M., & Rauch, K. (2009). Sexual conflict in humans: variation in conflicts and solutions. Evolutionary Anthropology, 18, 201–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  16. Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. (1985). Culture and the evolutionaryprocess. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  17. Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. (2009). Culture and the evolution of human cooperation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences, 364, 3281–3288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boyette, A. (2008). Scaffolding for cooperative breeding among Aka forager. San Francisco: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  19. Brody, E. (1981). Sex, contraception and motherhood in Jamaica. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Buss, D. (2006). Strategies of human mating. Psychological Topics, 15, 239–260.Google Scholar
  21. Cant, M., & Johnstone, R. (2008). Reproductive conflict and the separation of reproductive generations in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 5332–5336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carsten, J. (1995). The substance of kinship and the heat of the hearth: feeding, personhood, and relatedness among Malays in Pulau Langkawi. American Ethnologist, 22, 223–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chapais, B. (2008). Primeval kinship: How pair-bonding gave birth to human society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Charnov, E., & Berrigan, D. (1993). Why do female primates have such long lifespans and so few babies? Or, Life in the slow lane. Evolutionary Anthropology, 2, 191–194.Google Scholar
  25. Chisholm, J. (1996). The evolutionary ecology of attachment organization. Human Nature, 7, 1–38.Google Scholar
  26. Chisholm, J., Quinliven, J., Petersen, R., & Coall, D. (2005). Early stress predicts age at menarche and first birth, adult attachment, and expected lifespan. Human Nature, 16, 233–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clutton-Brock, T. (2009). Cooperation between non-kin in animal societies. Nature, 462, 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cordain, L., Brand Miller, J., Eaton, B. S., Mann, N., Holt, S., & Speth, J. (2000). Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 682–692.Google Scholar
  29. Crittenden, A., & Marlowe, F. (2008). Allomaternal care among the Hadza of Tanzania. Human Nature, 19, 249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cronk, L., & Gerkey, D. (2007). Kinship and descent. In R. I. M. Dunbar & L. Barret (Eds.), Oxford handbook of evolutionary psychology (pp. 463–478). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Curtis, J. T., & Wang, Z. (2003). The neurochemistry of pair bonding. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 49–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Draper, P. (1975). Contrasts in sexual egalitarianism in foraging and sedentary contexts. In R. Reiter (Ed.), Toward an anthropology of women (pp. 70–112). New York and London: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  33. Dunbar, R., & Shultz, S. (2007). Evolution of the social brain. Science, 317, 1344–1347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ellis, B., Figueredo, A. J., Brumback, B., & Schlomer, G. (2009). Fundamental dimensions of environmental risk. The impact of harsh versus unpredictable environments on the evolution and development of life history strategies. Human Nature, 20, 204–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Elston, R., & Zeanah, D. (2002). Thinking outside the box: a new perspective on diet breadth and sexual division of labor in the Prearchaic Great Basin. World Archaeology, 34, 103–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Emery Thompson, M., Jones, J., Pusey, A., Brewer-Marsden, S., Goodall, J., Marsden, D., et al. (2007). Aging and fertility patterns in wild chimpanzees provide insights into the evolution of menopause. Current Biology, 17, 2150–2156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Emlen, S. (1995). An evolutionary theory of the family. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 92, 8092–8099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Flinn, M. (2006). Evolution and ontogeny of stress response to social challenges in the human child. Developmental Review, 26, 138–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Frank, R. (2001). Cooperation through emotional commitment. In R. Nesse (Ed.), Evolution and the capcity for commitment (pp. 57–76). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Fromhage, L., Mcnamara, J., & Houston, A. (2007). Stability and value of male care for offspring: is it worth only half the trouble? Biology Letters, 3, 234–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gibson, M., & Mace, R. (2005). Helpful grandmothers in rural Ethiopia: a study of the effect of kin on child survival and growth. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 469–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gomes, C. M., & Boesch, C. (2009). Wild chimpanzees exchange meat for sex on a long-term basis. PLoS ONE, 4, e5116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goody, J. (1976). Production and reproduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Gray, P., Kahlenberg, S., Barrett, E., Lipson, S., & Ellison, P. T. (2002). Marriage and fatherhood are associated with lower testosterone in males. Evolution and Human Behavior, 23, 193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gurven, M., & Walker, R. (2006). Energetic demand of multiple dependents and the evolution of slow human growth. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences, 273, 835–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gurven, M., Hill, K., Kaplan, H., Hurtado, A., & Lyles, R. (2000). Food transfers among Hiwi foragers of Venezuela: tests of reciprocity. Human Ecology, 28, 171–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gurven, M., Winking, J., Kaplan, H., von Rueden, C., & McAllister, L. (2009). A bioeconomic approach to marriage and the sexual division of labor. Human Nature, 20, 151–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Haig, D. (2010). Transfers and transitions: parent-offspring conflict, genomic imprinting, and the evolution of human life history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 1731–1735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hamilton, W. (1964). The genetical theory of social behavior, I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 1–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Harrell, S. (1997). Human families. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  51. Hawkes, K., & Bliege Bird, R. (2002). Showing off, handicap signaling, and the evolution of men’s work. Evolutionary Anthropology, 11, 58–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hawkes, K., O’Connell, J. F., & Blurton Jones, N. G. (1997). Hadza women’s time allocation, offspring provisioning, and the evolution of long post-menopausal life spans. Current Anthropology, 38, 551–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hawkes, K., O’Connell, J. F., Blurton Jones, N., Charnov, E., & Alvarez, H. (1998). Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95, 1336–1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hawkes, K., O’Connell, J. F., & Blurton Jones, N. G. (2001). Hunting and nuclear families: some lessons from the Hadza about men’s work. Current Anthropology, 42, 681–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Heyer, E., Sibert, A., & Austerlitz, F. (2005). Cultural transmission of fitness: genes take the fast lane. Trends in Genetics, 21, 234–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hill, K., & Hurtado, A. M. (2009). Cooperative breeding in South American hunter-gatherers. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences, 276, 3863–3870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Holden, C. J., & Mace, R. (2003). Spread of cattle led to the loss of matrilineal descent in Africa: a coevolutionary analysis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 270, 2425–2433.Google Scholar
  58. Holland, B., & Rice, W. R. (1998). Chase-away sexual selection: antagonistic seduction versus resistance. Evolution, 52, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Holman, D., Wood, J., & Campbell, K. (2000). Age-dependent decline of female fecundity is caused by early fetal loss. In E. te Velde, F. Broekmans, & P. Pearson (Eds.), Female reproductive ageing (pp. 123–136). Camforth: Parthenon.Google Scholar
  60. Hrdy, S. B. (1999). Mother nature: Maternal instincts and how they shape the human species. New York: Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
  61. Hrdy, S. B. (2005). Cooperative breeders with an ace in the hole. In E. Voland, A. Chasiotis, & W. Schiefenhoevel (Eds.), Grandmotherhood—The evolutionary significance of the second half of female life (pp. 295–317). Piscataway: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Hrdy, S. B. (2009). Mothers and others: The evolutionary origin of mutual understanding. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Hurtado, A. M., Hill, K., Kaplan, H., & Hurtado, I. (1992). Tradeoffs between female food acquisition and childcare among Hiwi and Ache foragers. Human Nature, 3, 185–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Isbell, L. (2004). Is there no place like home? Ecological bases of female dispersal and philopatry and their consequences for the formation of kin groups. In B. Chapais & C. Berman (Eds.), Kinship and behavior in primates (pp. 71–108). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Kaplan, H. (1994). Evolutionary wealth flows theories of fertility: empirical tests and new models. Population and Development Review, 20, 753–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kaplan, H. (1996). A theory of fertility and parental investment in traditional and modern human societies. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 39, 91–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kaplan, H., Hill, K., Lancaster, J., & Hurtado, A. M. (2000). A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology, 9, 156–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kaplan, H., Hooper, P., & Gurven, M. (2009). The evolutionary and ecological roots of human social organization. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences, 364, 3289–3299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kaplan, H., Gurven, M., Winking, J., Hooper, P., & Stieglitz, J. (2010). Learning, menopause, and the human adaptive complex. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1204, 30–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kramer, K. (2005). Children’s help and the pace of reproduction: cooperative breeding in humans. Evolutionary Anthropology, 14, 224–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kramer, K., & Ellison, P. (2010). Pooled energy budgets: resituating human life history trade-offs. Evolutionary Anthropology, 19, 136–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kuzawa, C., & Quinn, E. (2009). Developmental origins of adult function and health: evolutionary hypotheses. Annual Review of Anthropology, 38, 131–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lee, R. B. (1979). The !Kung San: Men, women and work in a foraging society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Lee, R. D. (2003). Rethinking the evolutionary theory of aging: transfers, not births, shape senescence in social species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100, 9637–9642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Leonetti, D. L., Nath, D. C., Hemam, N. S., & Neill, D. B. (2004). Do women really need marital partners for support of their reproductive success? The case of the matrilineal Khasi of N.E. India. Research in Economic Anthropology, 23, 151–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Leonetti, D. L., Nath, D. C., Hemam, N. S., & Neill, D. B. (2005). Kinship organization and grandmother’s impact on reproductive success among the matrilineal Khasi and patrilineal Bengali of N.E. India. In E. Voland, A. Chasiotis, & W. Schiefenhoevel (Eds.), Grandmotherhood: The evolutionary significance of the second half of female life (pp. 194–214). Piscataway: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Leonetti, D., Nath, D. C., & Hemam, N. S. (2007). “In-law conflict”: women’s reproductive lives and the roles of their mothers and husbands among the matrilineal Khasi. Current Anthropology, 48, 861–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Levine, S., & Wiener, S. (1988). Psychoendocrine aspects of mother-infant relationship in nonhuman primates. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 13, 143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lillard, L. A., & Panis, C. W. A. (1996). Marital status and mortality: the role of health. Demography, 33, 313–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lundberg, S., & Pollak, R. (1996). Bargaining and distribution in marriage. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10, 139–158.Google Scholar
  81. Manson, J. (1997). Primate consortships. A critical review. Current Anthropology, 38, 353–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Marlowe, F. (2001). Male contributions to diet and female reproductive success among foragers. Current Anthropology, 42, 755–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marlowe, F. (2003). A critical period for provisioning by Hadza men. Implication for pair bonding. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24, 217–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Marlowe, F. (2007). Hunting and gathering. The human sexual division of foraging labor. Cross-Cultural Research, 41, 170–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Marlowe, F. (2010). The Hadza: Hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  86. Mason, K., & Taj, A. (1987). Differences between women’s and men’s reproductive goals in developing countries. Population and Development Review, 13, 611–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mattison, S. (2010). The economic impacts of tourism and erosion of the visiting system among the Mosuo of Lugu Lake. Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 11, 157–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. McFarland, R. (1992). Body composition and reproduction in female pigtail macaques. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle.Google Scholar
  89. McHenry, H. (1996). Sexual dimorphism in fossil hominids and its socioecological implications. In J. Steel & S. Shennan (Eds.), The archaeology of human ancestry: Power, sex and tradition (pp. 91–109). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  90. Meehan, C. (2009). Maternal time allocation in two cooperative childrearing societies. Human Nature, 20, 375–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Muller, M., Emery Thompson, M., & Wrangham, R. (2006). Male chimpanzees prefer mating with old females. Current Biology, 16, 2234–2238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Neill, D., Leonetti, D., Nath, D., & Hemam, S. (2005). Offspring contributions to household economy by age and sex among the Khasi of Northeast India. New Brunswick: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society.Google Scholar
  93. Netting, R., Wilk, R., & Arnould, E. (1984). Introduction. In R. Netting, R. Wilk, & E. Arnould (Eds.), Households: Comparative and historical studies of the domestic group (pp. xiii–xxxviii). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  94. Neugebauer, I., Kline, J., Stein, Z., Shrout, P., Warburton, D., & Susser, M. (1996). Association of stressful life events with chromosomally normal spontaneous abortion. American Journal of Epidemiology, 143, 588–596.Google Scholar
  95. Neumann, I. (2009). The advantage of social living: brain neuropeptides mediate the beneficial consequences of sex and motherhood. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 30, 483–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nolin, D. (2010). Food-sharing networks in Lamalera, Indonesia: reciprocity, kinship and distance. Human Nature, 21, 243–268. doi:10.1007/s12110-010-9091-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nolin, D. (2011). Kin preference and partner choice: Patrilineal descent and biological kinship in Lamaleran cooperative relationships. Human Nature, 22. doi:10.1007/s12110-011-9113-9.
  98. Pagel, M. (2010). The rise of the speaking machine: Explorations in human language evolution. Eugene: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society.Google Scholar
  99. Panter-Brick, C. (2002). Sexual division of labor: energetic and evolutionary scenarios. American Journal of Human Biology, 14, 627–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Quinlan, R., & Quinlan, M. (2008). Human lactation, pair bonds, and alloparents: a cross-cultural analysis. Human Nature, 19, 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Richerson, P., Bettinger, R., & Boyd, R. (2005). Evolution on a restless planet: Were environmental variability and environmental change major drivers of human evolution? In F. Wuketits & F. Ayala (Eds.), Handbook of evolution. The evolution of living systems (including hominids) (Vol. 2, pp. 223–242). Weinheim: Wiley-Verlag.Google Scholar
  102. Rivière, P. (2004). Marriage. A reassessment. In R. Needham (Ed.), Rethinking marriage and kinship (pp. 57–70). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  103. Roland, A. (1988). In search of self in India and Japan: Toward a cross-cultural psychology. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Rolfes, S., Pinna, K., & Whitney, E. (2009). Understanding normal and clinical nutrition (8th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  105. Rose, L. (1997). Vertebrate predation and food sharing in Cebus and Pan. International Journal of Primatology, 18, 727–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Roy, M. (1972). Bengali women. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  107. Schoeninger, M., Bunn, H., Murray, S., & Marlett, J. (2001). Composition of tubers used by Hadza foragers of Tanzania. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 14, 15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sellen, D. (2007). Evolution of infant and young child feeding. Implications for contemporary public health. Annual Review of Nutrition, 27, 123–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Silk, J. (2007). Social components of fitness in primate groups. Science, 317, 1347–1351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith, E. A. (2004). Why do good hunters have higher reproductive success? Human Nature, 15, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Smith, E. A. (2010). Communication and collective action: language and the evolution of human cooperation. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31, 231–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Smuts, B. (1992). Male aggression against women: an evolutionary perspective. Human Nature, 3, 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Smuts, B. (1995). The evolutionary origins of patriarchy. Human Nature, 6, 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Stack, C. (1974). All our kin: Strategies for survival in a black community. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  115. Strassmann, B. I., & Clarke, A. L. (1998). Ecological constraints on marriage in rural Ireland. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19, 33–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Thaler, R. (1980). Toward a positive theory of consumer choice. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 1, 39–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Trivers, R. (1974). Parent-offspring conflict. American Zoologist, 14, 249–264.Google Scholar
  118. Tuljapurkar, S., & Wiener, P. (2000). Escape in time: stay young or age gracefully? Ecological Modelling, 133, 143–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. van den Berghe, P. (1979). Human family systems: An evolutionary view. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  120. Voas, D. (2003). A reason fertility tends to be too high or too low. Population and Development Review, 29, 627–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Winking, J., Kaplan, H., Gurven, M., & Rucas, S. (2007). Why do men marry and why do they stray? Proceedings of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences, 274, 1643–1649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wood, B. (2006). Prestige or provisioning? A test of foraging goals among the Hadza. Current Anthropology, 47, 383–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wood, B., & Marlowe, F. (2009). Hadza kinship and its role in residence patterns and food sharing. Philadelphia: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  124. Wrangham, R. (2009). Catching fire: How cooking made us human. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  125. Wrangham, R., Jones, J., Laden, G., Pilbeam, D., & Conklin-Brittain, N. (1999). The raw and the stolen. Current Anthropology, 40, 567–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Yanagisako, S., & Collier, J. (1987). Toward a unified analysis of gender and kinship. In J. Collier & S. Yanagisako (Eds.), Gender and kinship: Essays toward a unified analysis (pp. 14–50). Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Young, L., & Wang, Z. (2004). The neurobiology of pair bonding. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 1048–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zihlman, A., & McFarland, R. (2000). Body mass in lowland gorillas: a quantitative analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 113, 61–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anthropology and Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology (CSDE)University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations