Human Nature

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 50–73 | Cite as

Women’s fertility across the cycle increases the short-term attractiveness of creative intelligence

  • Martie G. Haselton
  • Geoffrey F. Miller


Male provisioning ability may have evolved as a “good dad” indicator through sexual selection, whereas male creativity may have evolved partly as a “good genes” indicator. If so, women near peak fertility (midcycle) should prefer creativity over wealth, especially in short-term mating. Forty-one normally cycling women read vignettes describing creative but poor men vs. uncreative but rich men. Women’s estimated fertility predicted their short-term (but not long-term) preference for creativity over wealth, in both their desirability ratings of individual men (r=.40, p<.01) and their forced-choice decisions between men (r=.46, p<.01). These preliminary results are consistent with the view that creativity evolved at least partly as a good genes indicator through mate choice.

Key words

Art Business Creativity, Female mate choice Fertility Good genes Intelligence Menstrual cycle Mental fitness indicators Ovulation Psychological attractiveness Wealth 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ambrose, S. H. 2001 Paleolithic Technology and Human Evolution. Science 291:1748–1753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atmar, W. 1991 On the Role of Males. Animal Behavior 41:195–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barber, N. 1995 The Evolutionary Psychology of Physical Attractiveness: Sexual Selection and Human Morphology. Ethology and Sociobiology 16:395–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barkow, J. 1989 Darwin, Sex, and Status. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  5. Boas, F. 1955 Primitive Art. New York: Dover.Google Scholar
  6. Boone, J. L. 1998 The Evolution of Magnaminity: When Is It Better to Give Than to Receive? Human Nature 9:1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boyd, R., and P. J. Richerson 1995 Why Does Culture Increase Human Adaptability? Ethology and Sociobiology 16:125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brüne, M. 2001 De Clérambault’s Syndrome (Erotomania) in an Evolutionary Perspective. Evolution and Human Behavior 22:409–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burling, R. 1986 The Selective Advantage of Complex Language. Ethology and Sociobiology 7:1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buss, D. M. 1989 Sex Differences in Human Mate Selection: Evolutionary Hypotheses Tested in 37 Cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:1–49.Google Scholar
  11. 2003 The Evolution of Desire, second ed. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, D. T. 1960 Blind Variation and Selective Retention in Creative Thought as in Other Knowledge Processes. Psychological Review 76:380–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Conniff, R. 2002 The Natural History of the Rich: A Field Guide. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  14. Crow, J. F. 1999 The Odds of Losing at Genetic Roulette. Nature 397:293–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crow, T. J. 1996 Sexual Selection as the Mechanism of Evolution of Machiavellian Intelligence: A Darwinian Theory of the Origins of Psychosis. Journal of Psychopharmacology 10:77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Darwin, C. 1871 The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, 2 vols. London: John Murray. (Reprinted in 1981 by Princeton University Press)Google Scholar
  17. David, A. S., A. Malmberg, L. Brandt, P. Allebeck, and G. Lewis 1997 IQ and Risk for Schizophrenia: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Psychological Medicine 27:1311–1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deary, I. J., L. J. Whalley, H. Lemmon, J. R. Crawford, and J. M. Starr 2000 The Stability of Individual Differences in Mental Ability from Childhood to Old Age: Follow-Up of the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey. Intelligence 28:49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dessalles, J. L. 1998 Altruism, Status and the Origin of Relevance. In Approaches to the Evolution of Language, J. R. Hurford, M. Studdert-Kennedy, and C. Knight, eds. Pp. 130–147. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. de Waal, F. 1982 Chimpanzee Politics. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  21. Dunbar, R. I. M. 1993 Coevolution of Neocortical Size, Group Size, and Language in Humans. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:681–735.Google Scholar
  22. Dunbar, R. I. M., A. Marriot, and N. D. C. Duncan 1997 Human Conversational Behavior. Human Nature 8:231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ellis, B., and D. Symons 1990 Sex Differences in Sexual Fantasy: An Evolutionary Approach. Journal of Sex Research 27:527–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eysenck, H. J. 1995 Genius: The Natural History of Creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Fawcett, T. W., and R. A. Johnstone 2003 Optimal Assessment of Multiple Cues. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 270:1637–1643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fink, B., K. Grammer, and R. Thornhill 2001 Human (Homo sapiens) Attractiveness in Relation to Skin Texture and Color. Journal of Comparative Psychology 115:92–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Frederick, D. A., and M. G. Haselton 2004 Is Male Muscularity an Indicator of Good Genes? Evidence from Female Preferences and Male and Female Sexual Experiences. Ms. in the authors’ possession, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  28. Furlow, B. F., T. Armijo-Prewitt, S. W. Gangestad, and R. Thornhill 1997 Fluctuating Asymmetry and Psychometric Intelligence. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 264:823–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gangestad, S. W., and D. M. Buss 1993 Pathogen Prevalence and Human Mate Preferences. Ethology and Sociobiology 14:89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gangestad, S. W., and J. A. Simpson 2000 The Evolution of Human Mating: Trade-Offs and Strategic Pluralism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23:675–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gangestad, S. W., and R. Thornhill 1998 Menstrual Cycle Variation in Women’s Preferences for the Scent of Symmetrical Men. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265:927–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gangestad, S. W., J. A. Simpson, A. J. Cousins, C. E. Garver-Apgar, and P. N. Christensen 2004 Women’s Preferences for Male Behavioral Displays Change across the Menstrual Cycle. Psychological Science 15:203–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Geary, D. C. 2000 Evolution and Proximate Expression of Human Paternal Investment. Psychological Bulletin 126:55–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goldberg, T. L. 1995 Altruism towards Panhandlers: Who Gives? Human Nature 6:79–89.Google Scholar
  35. Gottfredson, L. S., and I. J. Deary 2004 Intelligence Predicts Health and Longevity, But Why? Current Directions in Psychological Science 13:1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grammer, K. 1993 5-a-androst-16en-3-a-on: A Male Pheromone? A Brief Report. Ethology and Sociobiology 14:201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grammer, K., K. B. Kruck, and M. S. Magnusson 1998 The Courtship Dance: Patterns of Nonverbal Synchronization in Opposite-Sex Encounters. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 22:3–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grammer, K., J. Kruck, A. Juette, and B. Fink 2000 Non-Verbal Behavior as Courtship Signals: The Role of Control and Choice in Selecting Partners. Evolution and Human Behavior 21:371–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Grammer, K., B. Fink, A. P. Møller, and R. Thornhill 2003 Darwinian Aesthetics: Sexual Selection and the Biology of Beauty. Biological Reviews 78:385–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Haselton, M. G., and D. M. Buss 2000 Error Management Theory: A New Perspective on Biases in Cross-Sex Mindreading. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78:81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 2001 The Affective Shift Hypothesis: The Functions of Emotional Changes Following Sexual Intercourse. Personal Relationships 8:357–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Haselton, M. G., and S. W. Gangestad in press Conditional Expression of Women’s Desires and Men’s Mate Guarding across the Ovulatory Cycle. Hormones and Behavior.Google Scholar
  43. Hawkes, K. 1993 Why Hunter-Gatherers Work: An Ancient Version of the Problem of Public Goods. Current Anthropology 34:341–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hawkes, K., J. F. O’Connell, and N. G. Blurton Jones 2001 Hunting and Nuclear Families: Some Lessons from the Hadza about Men’s Work. Current Anthropology 42:681–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Henderson, J. J. A., and J. M. Anglin 2003 Facial Attractiveness Predicts Longevity. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:351–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hill, K., and A. M. Hurtado 1996 Ache Life History. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  47. Hirn, Y. 1900 The Origins of Art: A Psychological and Sociological Inquiry. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  48. Hoelzer, G. A. 1989 The Good Parent Process of Sexual Selection. Animal Behavior 38:1067–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Houle, D. 2000 Is There a g Factor for Fitness? In The Nature of Intelligence, G. Bock, J. Goode, and K. Webb, eds. Pp. 149–170. Novartis Foundation Symposium 233. New York: John Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Houle, D., and A. S. Kondrashov 2002 Coevolution of Costly Mate Choice and Condition-Dependent Display of Good Genes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269:97–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hughes, S. M., and G. G. Gallup, Jr. 2003 Sex Differences in Morphological Predictors of Sexual Behavior: Shoulder to Hip and Waist to Hip Ratios. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:173–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Iwasa, Y., and A. Pomiankowski 1999 Good Parent and Good Genes Models of Handicap Evolution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 200:97–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jensen, A. R. 1998 The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability. Westerport, Connecticut: Praeger.Google Scholar
  54. Jöchle, W. 1973 Coitus-Induced Ovulation. Contraception 7:523–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Johnston, V. S., R. Hagel, M. Franklin, B. Fink, and K. Grammer 2001 Male Facial Attractiveness: Evidence for Hormone-Mediated Adaptive Design. Evolution and Human Behavior 22:251–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kanzawa, S. 2000 Scientific Discoveries as Cultural Displays: A Further Test of Miller’s Courtship Model. Evolution and Human Behavior 21:317–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kaplan, H. S., K. Hill, J. Lancaster, and A. M. Hurtado 2000 A Theory of Human Life History Evolution: Diet, Intelligence, and Longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology 9:156–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Koehler, N., G. Rhodes, and L. W. Simmons 2002 Are Human Female Preferences for Symmetrical Male Faces Enhanced When Conception Is Likely? Animal Behavior 64:233–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kohn, M., and S. Mithen 1999 Handaxes: Products of Sexual Selection? Antiquity 73:518–526.Google Scholar
  60. Kokko, H. 1998 Should Advertising Parental Care Be Honest? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265:1871–1878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kokko, H., R. Brooks, J. M. McNamara, and A. I. Houston 2002 The Sexual Selection Continuum. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269:1331–1340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kokko, H., R. Brooks, M. D. Jennions, and J. Morley 2003 The Evolution of Mate Choice and Mating Biases. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 270:653–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kondrashov, A. 1995 Contamination of the Genomes by Very Slightly Deleterious Mutations: Why Have We Not Died 100 Times Over? Journal of Theoretical Biology 175:583–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 2003 Direct Estimates of Human Per Nucleotide Mutation Rates at 20 Loci Causing Mendelian Diseases. Human Mutation 21:12–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kuncel, N. R., S. A. Hezlett, and D. S. Jones 2004 Academic Performance, Career Potential, Creativity, and Job Performance: Can One Construct Predict Them All? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86:148–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Laland, K. N., J. Odling-Smee, and M. W. Feldman 1999 Niche Construction, Biological Evolution, and Cultural Change. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23:131–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Langlois, J. H., L. Kalakanis, A. J. Rubinstein, A. Larson, M. Hallam, and M. Smooth 2000 Maxims or Myths of Beauty? A Meta-analytical and Theoretical Review. Psychological Bulletin 126:390–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leitenberg, H., and K. Henning 1995 Sexual Fantasy. Psychological Bulletin 117:469–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lenton, E. A., B. M. Landgren, and L. Sexton 1984 Normal Variation in the Length of the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle: Identification of the Short Luteal Phase. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 91:685–689.Google Scholar
  70. Li, N. P., D. T. Kenrick, J. M. Bailey, and J. A. W. Linsenmeier 2002 The Necessities and Luxuries of Mate Preferences: Testing the Tradeoffs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82:947–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lotem, A., M. A. Fishman, and L. Stone 2003 From Reciprocity to Unconditional Altruism through Signaling Benefits. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 270:199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lubinski, D., and L. G. Humphreys 1997 Incorporating General Intelligence into Epidemiology and the Social Sciences. Intelligence 24:159–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. MacPhail, E. M., and J. J. Bolhuis 2001 The Evolution of Intelligence: Adaptive Specializations vs. General Process. Biological Reviews 76:341–364.Google Scholar
  74. Manning, J. T., D. Scutt, G. H. Whitehouse, and S. J. Leinster 1997 Breast Asymmetry and Phenotypic Quality in Women. Evolution and Human Behavior 18:223–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McGraw, K. J. 2002 Environmental Predictors of Geographic Variation in Human Mating Preferences. Ethology 108:303–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mesulam, M. M. 1998 From Sensation to Cognition. Brain 121:1013–1052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Michod, R. E., and O. Hassan 1990 On the Evolution of Reliable Indicators of Fitness. American Naturalist 135:788–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mikach, S. M., and J. M. Bailey 1999 What Distinguishes Women with Unusually High Numbers of Sex Partners? Evolution and Human Behavior 20:141–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Miller, G. F. 1997 Protean Primates: The Evolution of Adaptive Unpredictability in Competition and Courtship. In Machiavellian Intelligence II: Extensions and Evaluations, A. Whiten and R. W. Byrne, eds. Pp. 312–340. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  80. 1999a Sexual Selection for Cultural Displays. In The Evolution of Culture, R. Dunbar, C. Knight, and C. Power, eds. Pp. 71–91. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  81. 1999b Waste Is Good. Prospect (February):18–23.Google Scholar
  82. 2000a The Mating Mind: How Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  83. 2000b Mental Traits as Fitness Indicators: Expanding Evolutionary In Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Reproductive Behavior, D. Lecroy and P. Moller, eds. Pp. 62–74. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 907.Google Scholar
  84. 2000c Sexual Selection for Indicators of Intelligence. In The Nature of Intelligence, G. R. Bock, J. A. Goode, and K. Webb, eds. Pp. 260–275. Novartis Foundation Symposium 233. New York: John Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 2000d Evolution of Human Music through Sexual Selection. In The Origins of Music, N. L. Wallin, B. Merker, and S. Brown, eds. Pp. 329–360. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  86. 2001 Aesthetic Fitness: How Sexual Selection Shaped Artistic Virtuosity as a Fitness Indicator and Aesthetic Preferences as Mate Choice Criteria. Bulletin of Psychology and the Arts 2:20–25.Google Scholar
  87. Møller, A. P., and R. V. Alatalo 1999 Good Genes Effects in Sexual Selection. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 266:85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Møller, A. P., and M. Petrie 2002 Condition Dependence, Multiple Sexual Signals, and Immunocompetence in Peacoks. Behavioral Ecology 13:248–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mueller, U., and A. Mazur 2001 Evidence of Unconstrained Directional Selection for Male Tallness. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 50:302–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nachman, M. W., and S. L. Crowell 2000 Estimate of the Mutation Rate per Nucleotide in Humans. Genetics 156:297–304.Google Scholar
  91. Pawlowski, B. 1999 Permanent Breasts as a Side Effect of Subcutaneous Fat Tissue Increase in Human Evolution. Homo 50:149–162.Google Scholar
  92. Pawlowski, B., and R. I. M. Dunbar 1999 Withholding Age as Putative Deception in Mate Search Tactics. Evolution and Human Behavior 20:53–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pawlowski, B., and S. Koziel 2002 The Impact of Traits Offered in Personal Advertisements on Response Rates. Evolution and Human Behavior 23:139–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Penton-Voak, I. S., and D. I. Perrett 2000 Female Preferences for Male Faces Changes Cyclically: Further Evidence. Evolution and Human Behavior 21:39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 2001 Male Facial Attractiveness: Perceived Personality and Shifting Female Preferences for Male Traits across the Menstrual Cycle. Advances in the Study of Behavior 30:219–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Penton-Voak, I. S., D. I. Perrett, D. L. Castles, T. Kobayashi, D. M. Burt, L. K. Murray, and R. Minamisawa 1999 Menstrual Cycle Alters Face Preference. Nature 399:741–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Perusse, D. 1993 Cultural and Reproductive Success in Industrial Societies: Testing the Relationship at the Proximate and Ultimate Levels. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:267–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Petrie, M. 1994 Improved Growth and Survival of Offspring of Peacocks with More Elaborate Trains. Nature 371:598–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pillsworth, E. G., M. G. Haselton, and D. M. Buss 2004 Ovulatory Shifts in Female Sexual Desire. Journal of Sex Research 41:55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Postuma, D., E. J. C. De Geus, W. F. C. Baare, H. E. H. Pol, R. S. Kahn, and D. I. Boomsma 2002 The Association between Brain Volume and Intelligence Is of Genetic Origin. Nature Neuroscience 5:83–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Prokosch, M., R. Yeo, and G. F. Miller 2005 Intelligence Tests with Higher g-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability. Intelligence 33:203–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Reynolds, D. J., and R. Gifford 2001 The Sounds and Sights of Intelligence: A Lens Model Channel Analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 27:187–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rice, W. R. and S. D. Gaines 1994 “Heads I Win, Tails You Lose”: Testing Directional Alternative Hypotheses in Ecological and Evolutionary Research. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9:235–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rikowski, A., and K. Grammer 1999 Human Body Odour, Symmetry and Attractiveness. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 266:869–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ridley, M. 2001 The Cooperative Gene: How Mendel’s Demon Explains the Evolution of Complex Beings. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  106. Robson, A. J. 2001 The Biological Basis of Economic Behavior. Journal of Economic Literature 39:11–33.Google Scholar
  107. Robson, A. J., and H. S. Kaplan 2003 The Evolution of Human Life Expectancy and Intelligence in Hunter-Gatherer Economies. American Economic Review 93:150–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rowe, L., and D. Houle 1996 The Lek Paradox and the Capture of Genetic Variance by Condition Dependent Traits. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 263:1415–1421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Saad, G., and T. Gill 2000 Applications of Evolutionary Psychology in Marketing. Psychology and Marketing 17:1005–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Salmon, C., and D. Symons 2001 Warrior Lovers: Erotic Fiction, Evolution, and Female Sexuality. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.Google Scholar
  111. Scheib, J. E. 1994 Sperm Donor Selection and the Psychology of Female Mate Choice. Ethology and Sociobiology 15:113–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 2001 Context-Specific Mate Choice Criteria: Women’s Trade-offs in the Contexts of Long-Term and Extra-Pair Mateships. Personal Relationships 8:371–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Scheib, J. E., S. W. Gangestad, and R. Thornhill 1999 Facial Attractiveness, Symmetry, and Cues of Good Genes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 266:1913–1917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Schmitt, D. P., and D. M. Buss 1996 Strategic Self-Promotion and Competitor Derogation: Sex and Context Effects on the Perceived Effectiveness of Mate Attraction Tactics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70:1185–1204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schmitt, D. P., and T. K. Shackelford 2003 Nifty Ways to Leave Your Lover: The Tactics People Use to Entice and Disguise the Process of Human Mate Poaching. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 29:1018–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shackelford, T. K., and R. J. Larsen 1999 Facial Attractiveness and Physical Health. Evolution and Human Behavior 20:71–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shaner, A., G. F. Miller, and J. Mintz 2004 Schizophrenia as One Extreme of a Sexually Selected Fitness Indicator. Schizophrenia Research 70:101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Simonton, D. K. 1999 Creativity as Blind Variation and Selection Retention: Is the Creative Process Darwinian? Psychological Inquiry 10:309–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Singh, D. 1995 Female Health, Attractiveness, and Desirability for Relationships: Role of Breast Asymmetry and Waist-to-Hip Ratio. Ethology and Sociobiology 16:465–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sluming, V. A., and J. T. Manning 2000 Second to Fourth Digit Ratio in Elite Musicians: Evidence for Musical Ability as an Honest Signal of Male Fitness. Evolution and Human Behavior 21:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Smith, E. A., and R. B. Bird 2000 Turtle Hunting and Tombstone Opening: Public Generosity as Costly Signaling. Evolution and Human Behavior 21:245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Soler, C., M. Nunez, R. Gutierrez, J. Nunez, P. Medina, M. Sancho, J. Alvarez, and A. Nunez 2003 Facial Attractiveness in Men Provides Clues to Semen Quality. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:199–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sosis, R., S. Feldstein, and K. Hill 1998 Bargaining Theory and Cooperative Fishing Participation on Ifaluk Atoll. Human Nature 9:163–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sternberg, R., ed. 1999 Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  125. Strassman, B. I. 1997 The Biology of Menstruation in Homo sapiens: Total Lifetime Menses, Fecundity, and Nonsynchrony in a Natural-Fertility Population. Current Anthropology 38:123–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sunyaev, S., V. Ramensky, I. Koch, W. Lathe, A. S. Kondrashov, and P. Bork 2001 Prediction of Deleterious Human Alleles. Human Molecular Genetics 10:591–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tessman, I. 1995 Human Altruism as a Courtship Display. Oikos 74:157–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Thornhill, R., and S. W. Gangestad 1999 The Scent of Symmetry: A Human Pheromone That Signals Fitness? Evolution and Human Behavior 20:175–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Thornhill, R., S. W. Gangestad, and R. Comer 1995 Human Female Orgasm and Mate Fluctuating Asymmetry. Animal Behavior 50:1601–1615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Thornhill, R., S. W. Gangestad, R. Miller, G. Scheyd, J. K. McCullough, and M. Franklin 2003 Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes, Symmetry, and Body Scent Attractiveness in Men and Women. Behavioral Ecology 14:668–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Thornhill, R., and K. Grammer 1998 The Body and Face of Woman: One Ornament That Signals Quality? Evolution and Human Behavior 20:105–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Thornhill, N. W., and R. Thornhill 1990 An Evolutionary Analysis of Psychological Pain following Rape, 2: The Effects of Stranger, Friend, and Family-Member Offenders. Ethology and Sociobiology 11:177–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tooby, J., and L. Cosmides 1992 The Psychological Foundations of Culture. In The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture, J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, and J. Tooby, eds. Pp. 19–136. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  134. Udry, J. R., and N. Morris 1968 Distribution of Coitus in the Menstrual Cycle. Nature 200:593–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Veblen, T. 1899 The Theory of the Leisure Class. Reprinted in 1994 by Dover, New York.Google Scholar
  136. Von Schaik, C. P., R. O. Deaner, and M. Y. Merrill 1999 The Conditions for Tool Use in Primates: Implications for the Evolution of Material Culture. Journal of Human Evolution 36:719–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Waynforth, D. 2001 Mate Choice Trade-offs and Women’s Preference for Physically Attractive Men. Human Nature 12:207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Whissell, C. 1996 Mate Selection in Popular Women’s Fiction. Human Nature 7:427–447.Google Scholar
  139. Whiten, A., and R. W. Byrne, eds. 1997 Machiavellian Intelligence II: Extensions and Evaluations. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  140. Zahavi, A., and A. Zahavi 1997 The Handicap Principle: A Missing Piece of Darwin’s Puzzle. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  141. Zebrowitz, L. A., J. A. Hall, N. A. Murphy, and G. Rhodes 2002 Looking Smart and Looking Good: Facial Cues to Intelligence and Their Origins. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28:238–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Zechner, U., M. Wilda, H. Kehrer-Sawatzki, W. Vogel, R. Fundele, and H. Hameister 2001 A High Density of X-Linked Genes for General Cognitive Ability: A Run-Away Process Shaping Human Evolution? Trends in Genetics 17:697–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Transaction Publishers 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUCLALos Angeles
  2. 2.University of New MexicoUSA

Personalised recommendations