Human Nature

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 47–87 | Cite as

Relationship between subsistence and age at weaning in “preindustrial” societies

  • Daniel W. SellenEmail author
  • Diana B. Smay


Cross-cultural studies have revealed broad quantitative associations between subsistence practice and demographic parameters for preindustrial populations. One explanation is that variationin the availability of suitable weaning foods influenced the frequency and duration of breastfeeding and thus the length of interbirth intervals and the probability of child survival (the “weaning food availability” hypothesis). We examine the available data on weaning age variation in preindustrial populations and report results of a cross-cultural test of the predictions that weaning occurred earlier in agricultural and pastoral populations because dairy and cereal production increased the availability of easily digestible, nutrientrich foods appropriate for weaning. We found that, contrary to predictions, supplementation with liquid foods other than breast milk was delayed in agricultural populations relative to less agriculturally dependent ones and complementary feeding with solid foods was delayed in pastoral populations relative to those less dependent on herding. Although the duration of breastfeeding was longer in populations dependent on hunting, there was no qualitative evidence that such populations lacked foods appropriate for weaning. The patterns observed suggest that the relationships between demography and subsistence observed among preindustrial societies cannot be explained by the “weaning food availability” hypothesis. We discuss the implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying prehistoric human demography, subsistence shifts, allocation to parenting and mating effort, and the evolutionary implications of tradeoffs between diet and disease.

Key words

Agriculture Breastfeeding Childcare Comparative method Cross-cultural studies Cultural evolution Horticulture Hunter-gatherers Pastoralists Weanling’s dilemma Women’s work 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albert, E. M. 1963 Women of Burundi: A Study of Social Values. In Women of Tropical Africa, D. Paulme ed. Pp. 179–215. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  2. Alexandre, P., and J. Binet 1958 The Groupe Dit Pahouin (Fang-Boulou-Beti). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  3. Almedom, A., and A. de Waal 1990 Constraints on Weaning: Evidence from Ethiopia and Sudan. Journal of Biosocial Science 13:489–500.Google Scholar
  4. Altschuler, M. 1965 The Cayapa: A Study in Legal Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  5. Basedow, H. 1925 The Australian Aboriginal. Adelaide: F.W. Preece and Sons.Google Scholar
  6. Beals, R. L. 1946 Cheran: A Sierra Tarascan Village. Institute of Social Anthopology, Publication No. 2. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  7. 1966 Community in Transition, Nayón-Ecuador, ed. Latin American Studies Vol. 2. Latin American Center, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  8. Becher, H. 1960 The Surara and Pakidai, Two Yanoama Tribes in Northwest Brazil. Hamburg: Kommissionsverlag Cram, de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  9. Beckwith, M. W. 1929 Black Roadways: A Stduy of Jamaican Folk Life. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  10. Bentley, G. R., A. Goldberg, and G. Jasienska 1993a The Fertility of Agricultural and Non-agricultural Traditional Societies. Population Studies 47:269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bentley, G. R., G. Jasienska, and A. Goldberg 1993b Is the Fertility of Agriculturalists Higher Than That of Non-agriculturalists? Current Anthropology 35:778–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blackwood, B. 1935 Both Sides of Buka Passage: An Ethnographic Study of Social, Sexual, and Economic Questions in the North-Western Solomon Islands. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  13. Blurton Jones, N. G., L. C. Smith, J. F. O’Connell, K. Hawkes, and C. L. Kamuzora 1992 Demography of the Hadza, an Increasing and High Density Population of Savanna Foragers. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 89:159–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bohannan, P., and L. Bohannan 1958 Notes organized and prepared especially for the Human Relations Area Files. CD-ROM and microfiche, HRAF, New Haven.Google Scholar
  15. Brant, C. 1954 Tadagale: A Burmese Village in 1950. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, K. H., R. Y. Stallings, H. Creed de Kanashiro, G. Lopez de Romana, and R. E. Black 1990 Effects of Common Illnesses on Infant’s Energy Intakes from Breast Milk and Other Foods during Longitudinal Community-Based Studies in Huascar (Lima) Peru. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52:1005–1013.Google Scholar
  17. Bryant, A. T. 1949 The Zulu People as They Were Before the White Man Came. Pietermaritzburg, South Africa: Shuter & Shooter.Google Scholar
  18. Burling, R. 1963 Rengsanggri: Family and Kinship in a Garo Village. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, J. K. 1964 Honour, Family, and Patronage: A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  20. Campbell, K. L., and J. W. Wood 1988 Fertility in Traditional Societies. In Natural Human Fertility: Social and Biological Mechanisms, P. Diggory, S. Teper and M. Potts eds. Pp. 39–69. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Castle, S. E. 1992 Intra-household Variation in Illness Management and Child Care in Rural Mali. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
  22. Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. 1986 African Pygmies: An Evaluation of the State of Research. In African Pygmies, L. L. Cavali-Sforza, ed. Pp. 361–426. Orlando: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. Chagnon, N. A. 1968 Yanomamo: The Fierce People. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  24. Chapelle, J. 1957 Nomades noires du Sahara. Recherches en Sciences Humaines, 10. Paris: Librairie Pion.Google Scholar
  25. Chewings, C. 1936 Back in the Stone Age: The Natives of Central Australia. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.Google Scholar
  26. Cohen, M. N., and G. J. Armelagos, eds. 1984 Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. Cohen, R. 1967 The Kanuri of Bornu. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  28. Cohen, Y. A. 1966 A Study of Interpersonal Relations in a Jamaican Community. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  29. Cooper, J. M. 1917 Analytical and Critical Bibliography of the Tribes of Tierra del Fuego and Adjacent Territory. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 63 (whole no.).Google Scholar
  30. 1946 The Yahgan. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143(1):81–106.Google Scholar
  31. Dentan, R.K. 1988 Some Senoi Semai Dietary Restrictions: A Study of Food Behavior in a Malayan Hill Tribe. Ph.d. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Yale University.Google Scholar
  32. Dettwyler, K. A. 1987 Breastfeeding and Weaning in Mali: Cultural Context and Hard Data. Social Science and Medicine 24:633–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dettwyler, K. A., and C. Fishman 1992 Infant Feeding Practices and Growth. Annual Review of Anthropology 21:171–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dewey, K. G., R. J. Cohen, L. L. Rivera, J. Canahuati, and K. H. Brown 1997 Effects of Age at Introduction of Complementary Foods to Breast-fed Infants on Duration of Lactational Amenorrhea in Honduran Women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65:1403–1409.Google Scholar
  35. Diamond, N. 1969 K’un Shen: A Taiwan Village. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  36. Dieterlen, G., and G. Calame-Griaule 1960 L’Alimentation Dogon. Cahiers d’Etudes Africanes 1(3):46–89.Google Scholar
  37. Early, J. D., and J. F. Peters 1990 The Population Dynamics of the Mucajai Yanomama. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  38. el-Bushra, H. M., M. A. Salih, S. A. Satti, M. F. A. Ahmed, and I. A. Kamil 1994 Infant-feeding Practices in Urban and Rural Communities of the Sudan. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 46(5):309–312.Google Scholar
  39. Ember, M 1971 An Empirical Test of Galton’s Problem. Ethnology 10:98–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Emley, E. D. 1927 The Turkana of Kolosia District. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 57:157–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Erchak, G. M. 1977 Full Respect: Kpelle Children in Adaptation. HRAFlex Books, Ethnography Series FD6-001. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files.Google Scholar
  42. Erikson, E. H. 1943 Observations of the Yurok: Childhood and World Image. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 35(10):257–302.Google Scholar
  43. Fauveau, C., M. Siddiqui, A. Briend, D. Silimperi, N. Begum, and V. Fauveau 1992 Limited Impact of a Targeted Food Supplementation Programme in Bangladeshi Urban Slum Children. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 12:41–48.Google Scholar
  44. Flannery, K. 1973 The Origins of Agriculture. Annual Review of Anthropology 2:271–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Flannery, R. 1953 The Gros Ventres of Montana: Part 1, Social Life. Anthropological Series No. 15. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America.Google Scholar
  46. Forman, H. S. 1973 Law and Conflict in Rural Highland Ecuador. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  47. Fortes, M. 1949 The Web of Kinship among the Tallensi: The Second Part of an Analysis of the Social Structure of a Trans-Volta Tribe. Oxford: Oxford University Press for the International African Institute, London.Google Scholar
  48. Fortes, M., and S. L. Fortes 1936 Food in the Domestic Ecology of the Tallensi. Africa 9:237–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fried, J. 1951 Ideal Norms and Social Control in Tarahumara Society. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Gallin, B. 1966 Hsin Hsing, Taiwan: A Chinese Village in Change. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  51. Gay, J., and M. Cole 1967 The New Mathematics and an Old Culture: A Study of Learning among the Kpelle of Liberia. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  52. Gayton, A. H. 1948 Yokuts and Western Mono Ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  53. Geertz, H. S. 1961 The Javanese Family: A Study of Kinship and Socialization. Glencoe, New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  54. Gibbs, J. L. 1965 The Kpelle of Liberia. In Peoples of Africa, J. L. Gibbs, ed. Pp. 197–240. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  55. Gladwin, T., and S. B. Sarason 1953 Truk: Man in Paradise. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, No. 20. New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research.Google Scholar
  56. Gorer, G. 1938 Himalayan Village: An Account of the Lepchas of Sikkin. London: Michael Joseph.Google Scholar
  57. Gray, J. P. 1999 A Corrected Ethnographic Atlas. World Cultures 10(1):24–85.Google Scholar
  58. Greene, L. S. 1976 Nutrition and Behavior in Highland Ecuador. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  59. Grigson, W. V. 1938 The Maria Gonds of Bastar. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Gulliver, P. H. 1951 A Preliminary Survey of the Turkana. A Report Compiled for the Government of Kenya. Communications from the School of African Studies, University of Cape Town, n.s. 26.Google Scholar
  61. Gusinde, M. 1931 Die Feuerland Indianer. Band 1. Die Selk’nam; vom Leben und Denken eines Jagervolkes auf der grossen Feuerlandinsel. Modling bei Wien: Verlag der Internationalen Zeitschrift “Anthropos.”Google Scholar
  62. Gutierrez de Pineda, V. 1950 Organizacion social en La Guajira. Bogota, Colombia.Google Scholar
  63. Harner, M. J. 1973 The Jivaro: People of the Sacred Waterfalls. Garden City: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  64. Hauck, H. M. 1959 Maternal and Child Health in a Siamese Rice Village: Nutritional Aspects. Studies in Bang Chan, 1952–1954. Southeast Asia Program, Data Paper 39. Cornell Thailand Project, Interim Reports Series 5. Cornell University, Ithaca.Google Scholar
  65. Herskovits, M. J. 1937 Life in a Haitian Valley. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  66. Hewlett, B. 1991 Demography and Childcare in Preindustrial Societies. Journal of Anthropological Research 47:1–37.Google Scholar
  67. Hickman, J. M. 1964 The Aymara of Chinchera, Peru: Persistence and Change in a Bicultural Contexts. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  68. Hilger, M. I. 1957 Araucanian Child Life and Its Cultural Background. Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 133. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  69. Hill, G. W. 1956 Los Guarao del Delta Amacuro. Universidad Central de Venezula, Caracas.Google Scholar
  70. Hockings, P. 1980 Sex and Disease in a Mountain Community. New Delhi: Vikas.Google Scholar
  71. Hogbin, H. I. 1943 A New Guinea Infancy from Conception to Weaning in Wogeo. Oceania 13:285–309.Google Scholar
  72. Hogg, D. W. 1975 Jamaican Religions: A Study in Variations. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  73. Holmberg, A. R. 1950 Nomands of the Long Bow: The Siriono of Eastern Bolivia. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  74. Honigman, J. J. 1954 The Kaska Indians: An Ethnographic Reconstruction. Yale University Publications in Anthropology No. 51.Google Scholar
  75. Howell, N. 1979 Demography of the Dobe! Kung. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  76. Hull, V., and M. Simpson, eds. 1985 Breastfeeding, Child Health and Child Spacing: Cross-cultural Perspectives. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  77. Hulstaert, G. E. 1938 Le Mariage des Nkundo. Institut Royal Colonial Belge, Section des Sciences Morales et Politiques, Memoires 8. Librairie Falk Fils, Georges Van Campenhout, Successeur, Bruxelles.Google Scholar
  78. Hunt, E. E., D. M. Schneider, N. R. Kidder, and W. D. Stevens 1949 The Micronesians of Yap and Their Depopulation. Pacific Science Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  79. Huntingford, G. W. B. 1953 The Southern Nilo-Hamites. Ethnographic Survey of Africa, East Central Africa, Part 8. London: International African Institute.Google Scholar
  80. Hurault, J. 1959 Etude demographique comparee des Indiens Oayana et des noirs refugies Boni du Haut-Maroni (Guyane Française). Population 14:509–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hurlbert, J. 1962 Age as a Factor in the Social Organization of the Hare Indians of Fort Good Hope, N.W.T., Canada. Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, Northern Co-ordination and Research Centre, NCRC-62-5, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  82. Hurtado, A., A. Hill, H. Kaplan, and I. Hurtado 1992 Trade-offs between Female Food Acquisition and Child Care among Hiwi and Ache Foragers. Human Nature 3:185–216.Google Scholar
  83. Igbedioh, S., and J. Aderiye 1992 Breastfeeding Pattern and Weaning Practices in Infants and Children in Makurdi, Nigeria under Changing Socio-economic Condition. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 29(1):45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Igbedioh, S., A. Ogbeni, and G. Adole 1996 Infant Weaning Practices of Some Tiv Women Resident in Makurdi, Nigeria. Nutrition and Health 11(1):13–28.Google Scholar
  85. Itkonen, T. I., O. Guemati, and E. Perez-Roman 1984 The Lapps in Finland up to 1945, Vol. 2. Helsinki: Porvoo.Google Scholar
  86. Jochelson, W. 1905 The Koryak, Part 1: Religion and Myths. Jessup North Pacific Expedition Publications 6. New York: G. E. Stechert.Google Scholar
  87. 1908 The Koryak, Part 2: Material Culture and Social Organization. Jessup North Pacific Expedition Publications 6. New York: G. E. Stechert.Google Scholar
  88. Jones, L. F. 1914 A Study of the Thlingets of Alaska. New York: Fleming H. Revell.Google Scholar
  89. Joseph, A., R. B. Spicer, and J. Chesky 1949 The Desert People: A Study of the Papago Indians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  90. Karsten, R. 1935 The Headhunters of Western Amazonas: The Life and Culture of the Jibaro Indians of Eastern Ecuador and Peru. Societas Scieniarum Fennica: Commentationes Humanarum Littererum VII(1). Helsingfors: Centraltryckeriet.Google Scholar
  91. Kerr, M. 1952 Personality and Conflict in Jamaica. Liverpool: University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Kramer, A., and H. Nevermann 1938 Ralik-Ratak (Marshall-Inseln). Ergebnisse der Sudsee-Expedition 1908–1910. Ethnographie: Mikronesien, Vol II. Hamburg: Friederichsen, de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  93. Krige, E. J. 1965 The Social System of the Zulus, second ed. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter.Google Scholar
  94. Lancy, D. F. 1975 Work, Play, and Learning in a Kpelle Town. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Education, University of Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  95. Landy, D. 1959 Tropical Childhood: Cultural Transmission and Learning in a Rural Puerto Rican Village. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  96. Larken, P. M. 1927 An Account of the Zande. Sudan Notes and Records X:85–134.Google Scholar
  97. Larsen, C. 1995 Biological Changes in Human Populations with Agriculture. Annual Review of Anthropology 24:185–213.Google Scholar
  98. Leakey, L. S. B. 1952 Mau Mau and the Kikuyu. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  99. Lee, R. B. 1979a Hunter-Gatherers in Process: The Kalahari Research Project, 1963–1976. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  100. 1979b The !Kung San: Men, Women, and Work in a Foraging Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Leighton, D. C., and J. Adair 1963 People of the Middle Place: A Study of the Zuni Indians. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files.Google Scholar
  102. Leighton, D. C., and C. Kluckhohn 1947 Children of the People. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Leslie, J. 1987 Time Costs and Time Savings to Women of the Child Survival Revolution. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.Google Scholar
  104. Levine, D. N. 1965 Wax and Gold: Tradition and Innovation in Ethiopian Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  105. Lhote, H. 1944 Les Touaregs du Hoggar. Paris: Payot.Google Scholar
  106. Lin, Y. 1947 Liang-shan I Chia (The Lolo of Liang-shan). Shanghai: Commercial Press.Google Scholar
  107. Lloyd, P. C. 1965 The Yoruba of Nigeria. In Peoples of Africa, J. L. Gibbs ed. Pp. 549–582. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  108. Mabilia, M. 1996a Beliefs and Practices in Infant Feeding among the Wagogo of Chigongwe (Dodoma Rural District), Tanzania, Part 1: Breastfeeding. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 35(3):195–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 1996b Beliefs and Practices in Infant Feeding among the Wagogo of Chigongwe (Dodoma Rural District), Tanzania, Part 2: Weaning. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 35(3):209–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. MacDonald, D. 1929 The Land of the Lama. London: Seeley, Service.Google Scholar
  111. Mace, R., and M Pagel 1994 The Comparative Method in Anthropology. Current Anthropology 35:549–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Maher, V. 1992 The Anthropology of Breast-Feeding: Natural Law or Social Contract. Oxford/Providence: Berg.Google Scholar
  113. Malinowski, B. 1929 The Sexual Life of Savages in Northwestern Melanesia, 2 vols. New York: Horace Liveright.Google Scholar
  114. Maquet, J. J. P. 1954 The Kingdom of Ruanda. In African Worlds: Studies in the Cosmological Ideas and Social Values of African Peoples, D. Forde, ed. Pp. 164–189. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Maretzki, T. W., and H. Maretzki 1963 Taira: An Okinawan Village. In Six Cultures: Studies of Child Rearing, B. B. Whiting, ed. Pp. 363–539. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  116. Marriot, H. 1997 Juggling Time and Dropping the Baby? Constraints Faced by Malian Women. In Population Dynamics: Some Past and Emerging Issues, R. Powell, E. Mwafeni, and A. Ankomah, eds. Pp. 74–83. Exeter: University of Exeter.Google Scholar
  117. Marshall, W. E. 1873 A Phrenologist amongst the Todas. London: Longmans, Green.Google Scholar
  118. McCulloch, M. 1952 The Ovimbundu of Angola. Ethnographic Survey of Africa, West Central Africa, Part II. London: International African Institute.Google Scholar
  119. McDade, T. W., and C. M. Worthman 1998 The Weanling’s Dilemma Reconsidered: A Biocultural Analysis of Breast-feeding Ecology. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 19(4):286–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. McIlwraith, T. F. 1948 The Bella Coola Indians, Vol. 1. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  121. Meek, C. K. 1970 Law and Authority in a Nigerian Tribe: A Study in Indirect Rule. New York: Barnes and Noble.Google Scholar
  122. Merker, M. 1910 Die Masai: Ethnographische Monographie eines ostafrikanischen Semitenvolkes. Zweite verbesserte und vermehrte Auflage. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.Google Scholar
  123. Mock, N., T. Sellers, A. Abdoh, and R. Franklin 1993 Socioeconomic, Environmental, Demographic and Behavioral Factors Associated with Occurrence of Diarrhea in Young Children in the Republic of Congo. Social Science and Medicine 36(6):807–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Murdock, G. 1967 Ethnographic Atlas. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  125. 1981 Atlas of World Cultures. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  126. Nader, L. 1969 The Zapotec of Oaxaca. In Ethnology, Part One. Handbook of Middle American Indians, Vol. 7, E. Z. Vogt, ed. Pp. 329–359. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  127. Naik, T. B. 1956 The Bhils: A Study. Delhi: Bharatiya Adimjati Sevak Sangh.Google Scholar
  128. Nash, J. C. 1970 In the Eyes of the Ancestors: Belief and Behavior in a Mayan Community. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  129. Newcomb, W. W. 1956 The Culture and Acculturation of the Delaware Indians. Anthropological Papers, No. 10. Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  130. Norbeck, E. 1954 Takashima: A Japanese Fishing Community. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  131. Ottenberg, P. V. 1965 The Afikpo Igbo of Eastern Nigeria. In Peoples of Africa, J. L. Gibbs, ed. Pp. 1–39. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  132. Panter-Brick, C. 1992 Women’s Work and Child Nutrition: The Food Intake of 0–4-Year-Old Children in Rural Nepal. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 29:11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Parsons, E. W. C. 1936 Mitla, Town of the Souls and Other Zapoteco-speaking Pueblos of Oaxaca, Mexico. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  134. 1945 Peguche, Canton of Otavalo, Province of Imbabura: A Study of Andean Indians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  135. Pearsall, M. 1950 Klamath Childhood and Education. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  136. Piker, S. I. 1965 An Examination of Character and Socialization in a Thai Peasant Community. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle.Google Scholar
  137. Popkin, B. 1980 Time Allocation of the Mother and Child Nutrition. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 9:1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Pospisil, L. J. 1958 Kapauku Papuans and their Law. Publications in Anthropology No. 54. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  139. Raphael, D., and F. Davis 1985 Only Mothers Know: Patterns of Infant Feeding in Traditional Cultures. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  140. Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. 1951 Los Kogi: Una tribu de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Bogota: Editorial Iqueima.Google Scholar
  141. Richards, A. I. 1956 Chisungu: A Girl’s Initiation Ceremony among the Bemba of Northern Rhodesia. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  142. Rosetta, L. 1989 Breast Feeding and Post-partum Amenorrhea in Serere Women in Senegal. Annals of Human Biology 16(4):311–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Rowland, M. G. M., R. A. E. Barrell, and R. G. Whitehead 1978 The Weanling’s Dilemma: Bacterial Contamination in Traditional Gambian Weaning Foods. Lancet (January 21):136–138.Google Scholar
  144. Sellen, D. W. 1998 Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices among African Pastoralists: The Datoga of Tanzania. Journal of Biosocial Science 30:481–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 1999 Relationships between Fertility, Mortality and Subsistence: Results of Recent Phylogenetic Analyses. In Proceedings of the Dual Congress, Sun City, South Africa, 28 June–4 July 1998: Colloquia in Human Biology and Palaeo-Anthropology, P. Tobias, G. Doyle, M. Raath, K. Kuykendall and H. Soodyall, eds. Florence, Italy: Angelo Pontecorboli.Google Scholar
  146. Sellen, D. W., and R. Mace 1997 Fertility and Mode of Subsistence: A Phylogenetic Analysis. Current Anthropology 38:878–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 1999 A Phylogenetic Analysis of the Relationship Between Sub-adult Mortality and Mode of Subsistence. Journal of Biosocial Science 31(1):1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Shattuck, G. C. 1933 The Peninsula of Yucatan: Medical, Biological, Meteorological, and Sociological Studies. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 431. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  149. Shepardson, M., and B. Hammond 1970 The Navajo Mountain Community: Social Organization and Kinship Terminology. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  150. Short, R. V., P. R. Lewis, M. B. Renfree, and G. Shaw 1991 Contraceptive Effects of Extended Lactational Amenorhoea: Beyond the Bellagio Consensus. Lancet 337(March 23):715–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Smith, E. W., and A. M. Dale 1920 The Ila-Speaking Peoples of Northern Rhodesia. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  152. Smith, M. G. 1965 The Hausa of Northern Nigeria. In Peoples of Africa, J. L. Gibbs, ed. Pp. 119–155. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  153. Smithson, C. L. 1959 The Havasupai Woman. Anthropological Papers No. 38. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  154. Spiro, M. E. 1949 Ifaluk: A South Sea Culture. Unpublished manuscript submitted as a final report, Coordinated Investigation of Micronesian Anthropology. Pacific Science Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  155. 1982 Oedipus in the Trobriands. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  156. Steward, J. H., R. A. Manners, E. R. Wolf, E. P. Seda, S. W. Mintz, and R. L. Scheele 1956 The People of Puerto Rico: A Study in Social Anthropology. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  157. Stirke, D. E. C. R. 1969 Barotseland: Eight Years among the Barotse. New York: Negro Universities Press.Google Scholar
  158. Stross, B. 1970 Aspects of Language Acquisition by Tzeltal Children. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  159. Sverdrup, H. U. 1938 Hon Tundrafolket. Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag.Google Scholar
  160. Taylor, H. W., M. Vazquez-Geffroy, S. J. Samuels, and D. M. Taylor 1999 Continuously Recorded Suckling Behaviour and Its Effect on Lactational Amenorrhoea. Journal of Biosocial Science 13:289–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Taylor, R. B. 1960 Teotilan del Valle: A Typical Mesoamerican Community. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene.Google Scholar
  162. Thompson, L. 1940 Fijian Frontier. San Francisco: American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations.Google Scholar
  163. Titiev, M. 1951 Araucanian Culture in Transition. Museum of Anthropology, Occasional Contributions, No. 15. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  164. Tracer, D. 1996 Lactation, Nutrition, and Postpartum Amenorrhea in Lowland Papua New Guinea. Human Biology 68(2):277–292.Google Scholar
  165. Tschopik, H. 1951 The Aymara of Chucito, Peru, Vol. 1: Magic. New York: American Museum of Natural History.Google Scholar
  166. Turner, V. W. 1952 The Lozi Peoples of North-western Rhodesia. London: International African Institute.Google Scholar
  167. Turrado Moreno, A. 1945 Etnografia de los Indios Guaraunos. Tercera Conferencia Interamericana de Agricultura, Cuadernos Verdes 15. Caracas: Lit. y Tip Vargas.Google Scholar
  168. Underhill, R. M. 1939 Social Organization of the Papago Indians. Contributions to Anthropology, No. 30. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  169. Uwaegbute, A. C. 1991 Weaning Practices and Weaning Foods of the Hausas, Yorubas, and Ibos. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 26(2):139–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. VanStone, J. W. 1963 The Snowdrift Chipewyan. Northern Co-ordination and Research Centre, NCRC-63-4. Ottawa.Google Scholar
  171. Villa Rojas, A. 1945 The Maya of East Central Quintana Roo. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 559. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  172. Vitzthum, V. 1989 Nursing Behavior and Its Relation to the Duration of Post-partum Amenorrhoea in an Andean Community. Journal of Biosocial Science 21:145–160.Google Scholar
  173. 1994 The Comparative Study of Breastfeeding Structure and Its Relation to Human Reproductive Ecology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 37:307–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Wallace, A. F. C. 1950 Some Psychological Characteristics of the Delaware Indians during the 17th and 18th Centuries. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 20(1–2):33–39.Google Scholar
  175. Wallace, A. F. C., and S. K. Steen 1972 The Death and Rebirth of the Seneca. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  176. Wallis, W. D., and R. S. Wallis 1955 The Micmac Indians of Eastern Canada. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  177. Wandel, M., and G. Holmboe-Ottesen 1992 Women’s Work in Agriculture and Child Nutrition in Tanzania. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 38(October):252–255.Google Scholar
  178. Weiner, A. B. 1976 Women of Value, Men of Renown: New Perspectives in Trobriand Exchange. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  179. 1988 The Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  180. Westerman, D. H. 1921 Die Kpelle: Ein Negerstamm in Liberia dargestellt auf der Grundlage von Eingeborenen-Berichte. Quellen der Religionsgeschichte, Band 9, Gruppe 10. Gottingen: Vandenheck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  181. Whitaker, I. W. 1955 Social Relations in a Nomadic Lappish Community. Utgitt av Norsk Folkmuseum, Vol. 2. Oslo.Google Scholar
  182. White, D. R., and L. Brudner-White 1988 The Murdock Legacy: The Ethnographic Atlas and the Search for Method. Behavior Science Research 22:59–81.Google Scholar
  183. Whiting, J. W. M. 1941 Becoming a Kwoma: Teaching and Learning in a New Guinea Tribe. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  184. Winikoff, B., M. A. Castle, and V. H. Laukaran, eds. 1988 Feeding Infants in Four Societies: Causes and Consequences of Mothers’ Choices. New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  185. Wolf, A. P. 1980 Marriage and Adoption in China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  186. Wood, J. W., P. L. Johnson, and K. L. Campbell 1985 Demographic and Endocrinological Aspects of Low Natural Fertility in Highland New Guinea. Journal of Biosocial Science 17:57–79.Google Scholar
  187. Worthman, C. M., C. L. Jenkins, J. F. Stallings, and D. Lai 1993 Attenuation of Nursing-Related Ovarian Suppression and High Fertility in Well Nourished, Intensively Breast-feeding Amele Women of Lowland Papua New Guinea. Journal of Biosocial Science 25:425–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyEmory UniversityAtlanta

Personalised recommendations