Clio’s Non-education History Journal’s (NEHJ): Broadening Journal Publishing for History of Higher Education

Abstract

Historians of higher education need to consider publishing in non-education history journals [NEHJ’s] to place scholarship, especially for visibility for their research, or remain an isolated research specialization. This examination focuses on the landscape of history journals that publish history of education topics, specifically [NEHJ’s], on an international basis. A case study approach yielded data and, discussion revolves on history of higher education publication uses in four representative case studies: colleges and universities, professors, science, and medicine, to illustrate NEHJ’s and their contribution to history of higher education. Publishing considerations of this scholarly landscape, based on data gathered from various databases will provide the baseline for exploratory discussion of disciplinary cultures as they inform or deform history of higher education published within NEHJ literature. Animated by historiographic, subject, and methodological concerns, this discussion meshes histories of higher education vis-à-vis globalization within the publishing landscape and the transnational turn in scholarship. Journals, geographical and linguistic dispersion, articles and book reviews, are examined, revealing a larger publishing topography for NEHJ journals.

Publication of history of higher education scholarship is generally confined to journals identified with history of education proper, readily identified and publishing in this distinctive field. Such venues as History of Education Quarterly (U.S.), History of Education (U.K.), Histoire de l'éducation (France), Historical Studies in Education/Revue d’histoire de l’éducation (Canada—bi-lingual), or History of Education and Children’s Literature (Italy-publishes in other languages), among others. This tendency to publish only in such journals articulates the publishing ecology that sustains insularity of ideas, methodologies, and theoretical approaches and schools of thought.Footnote 1 Their publication reach may be concentrated, but their intellectual and scholarly reach is limited. NEHJ’s offer a suite of publication venues to historians publishing higher education topics. These journals broaden history of higher education publication and broaden the scope of treatments pertaining to higher education history by deploying non-educationist oriented approaches to a wider spectrum of theoretical perspectives, historiographic interests, deploying other discipline-informed methodologies and techniques of analysis. NEHJ’s expand research and respective to their disciplines, protocols, and professional emphases, and intellectual concerns, invigorating higher education history.

Special emphasis focuses on how other disciplinary journals and their methodologies influence history of education, as different history journals treat history of education differently depending upon the disciplinary culture to which they adhere. Within this context, the typology of disciplinary cultures and definitional disciplinary alignments, further frames the discussion of internationalization of history of education (See Figure 1)Footnote 2: and, on the history of universities and colleges as primary illustration. Instructive intersections further demonstrate the richness of history of universities, etc., that is, cultural, or political and societal interactions, or traditions, or research, training, and history of academic disciplines--specifically, general higher education, the professoriate, science, and medicine, essentially history of disciplinary education within the context of history of education in NEHJ’s.

Figure 1
figure1

Disciplinary morphology and publishing typology

Approach and Methodology

To gain a necessary and effective approach to this study, it was critical to embed this discussion within a bibliometric approach animated by historiographical framing. Bibliometric data was searched, generated, extracted, and triaged from Arts & Humanities Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index corroborated by Historical Abstracts and America: History & Life databases.Footnote 3 Special emphasis and illustration focused attention, added texture to the study--keyword topics examined are tertiary institutions, e.g. colleges and university institutions, professors, science, and medicine to gain a richer exploration of historical research not appearing in history of education journals. Extensive de visu examination of journal articles revealed salient characteristics of NEHJ publication.

Analysis of data provides empirical rigor to the exploration and illustration of nuances inherent in the NEHJ literature. Illustrations considered the following permutations and topics: journal articles, book reviews, geographical dispersion, language concentrations, as well as publication densities for 1997–2016. Within the context of disciplinary formation, the multi-layered histories of history of higher education, this discussion, via theoretically informed historiographical thinking and analysis, further reveals the necessity of broaching NEHJ literature for history of higher education publishing. The following are considered:

  1. A.)

    to situate historiographic discussion within the international publishing context of scholarly history journal publication.

  2. B.)

    utilize available databases for triage of pertinent history of education illustrations (history of universities and colleges, professoriate, history of science education, history of medicine education) data; frame the data within the larger context of publishing and disciplinary formation and publication.

  3. C.)

    apply historiographic discussion to this unique population of data and intellectually situate the international contextualization of history of higher education publishing within this larger journal publishing environment.

This discussion explores the status of the international publishing topography of NEHJ’s, history-orientated journals animating specific illustrative examples of history of education. Accompanying tables and graphics constitute an illustrative measure useful for locating history of higher education scholarship appearing in NEHJ venues.

The Global Context of History of Higher Education Publishing

Examination of the publishing of history of higher education, especially, how academic journals treat this field is dependent upon a number of key factors, revolving round expanding scholarship encompassing a larger spectrum of topics. Increasingly, transnational currents are discerned. However, few, if any, comparative analyses or transnational historiographic studies have appeared in historically oriented educationalist journals. Intellectually situating NEHJ’s within the corpus of history of higher journal literature opens additional historiographic considerations, innovations, techniques, and theoretical perspectives. At times national, local, or increasingly global, journals publishing historical studies focused on higher education and its various possible subjects, perforce includes an analogous spectrum of academic journals. Absent in sanctioned history of education organs, especially books, it is still important to go beyond institutionally sanctioned narratives supporting celebratory accomplishments of higher educational establishments and venues.Footnote 4 Often they compete with critical historical analyses informed by emerging approaches, appearing in the scholarly journal literature. To validate and critically ground history of higher education, it is imperative that historians articulate scholarship beyond the celebratory.Footnote 5

Educationalist Culture of Historical Inquiry vis-à-vis NEHJ’s

Journals constitute an expeditious approach to dissemination of scholarship; history of education is well-documented and served by national journals. If one examines Exe Libris: the UK History of Education Society Online bibliography, we retrieve 3,226 items for 1997-2016 appearing in history of education journals.Footnote 6 Two outstanding journals dedicated to the field of higher education, specifically, universities, are Annali di Storia delle Università Italiane with 234 articles, 171 reviews and the annual History of Universities, 88 articles. However, if we extend our bibliographic net to other history journals, the possibility of retrieving relevant scholarship provides interesting results for higher education history publication. Examination of higher learning is at best, a variegated and nuanced affair; it transcends the particular as well as the universal. To characterize higher education as a monolithic enterprise is to lessen its complexity. As globalization of higher learning continues to take root, historical investigation must assume a large canvass upon which to effectively penetrate and understand the many-layered manifestations, nuances, and purposes of higher education history publication across a spectrum of cultural forms and influences. The journal literature is replete with examples of how diverse the content and objectives are posed by NEHJ’s.

Internalist Versus Externalist Approaches in NEHJ’s

There are essentially two competing camps when pursuing history of education in academic journals: the internalist and the externalist.Footnote 7 The former frames historical research within the context of the education profession, while the latter extends the subject beyond its immediate confines. Internalist research operates within the known frame of explication within firm protocols vetted by the profession itself. An internalist focus in history of science education may concentrate on innovation in laboratory instrumentation solely, while an externalist approach would focus on innovation as tool for political or military advantage.Footnote 8 Put another way, honorary doctoral degree conferrals can be examined for their subject and recipient correlation, or could be examined for their politicized nature within a governmental regime (Figure 2).

Figure 2
figure2

Disciplinary journal alignment

NEHJ’s conform to the notion that various subjects are ripe for investigation—that is, education is only one among possible objects of research.

Institutionalization of Academic Disciplinary Journals

Academic disciplines and higher education do not exist in a vacuum; they occupy an intellectual space within a field of competing forces, resources, larger sociological conditions. So is the phenomenon characteristic of academic journals often as port parole for academic disciplines and disciplinary formations.Footnote 9 Since the earliest decades of the 19th century, academic journals have gained necessary intellectual gravitas, further evolving into the scholarly communication system existing today.Footnote 10 Indeed, were it not for the accompanying massification of higher education, it is doubtful that the current level of growth in academic journals would even exist. This symbiotic relationship generates a unique ecology of mutual intellectual support of producer to produced—institutionalized research to published scholarship.

It is important to understand that academic disciplines, especially research disciplines can be subjected to the tribal metaphor, especially as the ethnology of academic cultures generates, substantiates, and validates both learning and research. Tribal academic cultures and tribal metaphor may be useful when examining academic journals. Indeed, a primary and significant validator are found in academic journals, symposia, seminars, as well as research institutes, and lecture halls. In addition, territoriality as a useful metaphor permits an instructive sense of higher education as historical object. Academic disciplinary cultures, however they may be constructed, perforce engender an array of protocols, normative practice, vetting of learning and publication, etc. per respective acculturative influences and conditions.Footnote 11 Institutional, administrative, as well, geo-spatial situations inform, and exert unique characteristics in higher education, which are influenced by intellectual institutional space. Generally, NEHJ publication reflects these externalist perspectives.

Snapshots of NEHJ’s: Representative Case Studies

Increasingly, internationalization of historical research is influencing history of education publishing. Prior to this, most journals of history of education focused on national narratives, concerns, and preoccupations, with a nod to other countries, systems, and conditions. Not completely insular, they privileged their respective national constructs, as the field was developing, evolving, and establishing itself as a legitimate and viable disciplinary formation with higher education. NEHJ’s, however, pose an entirely different possibility for higher education history. Here, most historians publishing in NEHJ’s are not trained in schools of education, nor are they necessarily entirely focused on education as a historical phenomenon. Rather, they are often concerned with higher education within much larger contexts, or as in the case of academic disciplinary histories, attempting to explicate past, or emerging disciplinary characteristics within higher education phenomena. Therefore, it is not unusual to read NEHJ studies concerned with phenomena transcending recognizable parameters so often surveyed, and examined by non-school of education-trained historians. The following snapshots of NEHJ journals provides a clear topography of the constellations of this growing global presence of NEHJ’s in higher education history.

To gain an appreciation of the topography of NEHJ’s, it is essential to explore the diversity of NEHJ’s and their perspectives on education. NEHJ’s do not necessarily privilege education as an internalist pursuit—rather, NEHJ’s challenge educational history to gain a larger concern, which may or may not situate education, broadly speaking, within an educationist frame. Scholarship appearing in NEHJ’s often focus on issues and phenomenon beyond, or frame or animate education and its attendant phenomena within a larger historiographical concern. The following illustrations suggest that NEHJ’s are publishing on educational subjects, but reflecting their particular emphases, intellectual and methodological orientations.

Case I: Colleges, Universities

NEHJ publication focuses on higher education institutions within the larger context of governmental, societal, economic, political, as well as overarching concerns for mission and purpose. NEHJ’s perforce concentrate their publication efforts on contextualized issues that animate, influence, or operate in opposition or concert with higher education; occasionally, they broach topics that focus on issues that transcend local and national concerns (Figure 3). NEHJ’s expand the journal literature via interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary domains, publishing topics that focus attention on discrete phenomena, e.g. religion and higher education, or women studies and medicine—in fact, religion forms a strong corpus. Two journals dominate--Women’s History Review and International Journal of the History of Sport; however, journals devoted to religion form a major nexus of scholarship.

Figure 3
figure3

Major journal producers of articles

For these journals, UK institutions dominate institutional affiliation, while the USA forms a second cluster —however; Belgian, French and Romanian, led by Slovak institutions appear. Language of publication is critical to research dissemination, for this focus, English holds linguistic dominance, with French, Spanish, Italian, and German, holding their own; non-European languages are nearly absent. Regarding article production, countries of origin were USA and England, dominated production nearly 50%, while France, Canada, Spain, Italy, Scotland, Belgium, Austria, and Netherlands, constituted a second cluster. Africa, Asia, and Latin America barely appears.

Because reviews are integral to journal scholarship, as they provide a service to monitoring monographic contributions, a spectrum of journals, especially, mainstream national journals appear, e.g. American Historical Review, Journal of American History, or Historische Zeitschrift--higher education subjects are heavily reviewed, especially, when tied to journals publishing on history of religion (Figure 4).

Figure 4
figure4

Top reviewing journals

Again, UK and U.S.A. institutions dominate the sample of reviews, attesting to a wider spectrum among diverse NHEJ’s. Complementing the dominance held by U.S.A. and Europe, reviews appear in journals originating in the U.S.A. and Europe. Linguistic dissemination is Anglophone centered, but is followed by English, French, German, and Spanish respectively, again making these the principle languages of dissemination.

Case II: Professors

Studies of the professoriate include career, research training, evaluation of research, and professorial interactions within institutional venues, constitute a salient gravitational center in NEHJ’s. Often, biographical studies may include prosopographic approaches as well as situating an individual’s career and life within the professional contextualization of academic careerism, etc.Footnote 12 Generally, these publications reveal a strong orientation to analysis of professorial life, duties, and responsibilities vis-à-vis various institutional framework. Studies may include, but are not limited to administrative, internal conditions, resources, as well as research and pedagogical considerations. These preoccupations in turn, illuminate the complexities attendant to professorial commitments, comportment, etc. vis-à-vis national, local evolution, disciplinary phenomena, traditions, and relations of power within the academy.Footnote 13

Critically, this sample presents a different picture from the general higher education sample. The range of journals is greater, richer in intellectual diversity, international, and linguistically diverse (Figure 5). Journals represent subdisciplinary as well as provincial, national, and geographically specific foci and are less U.S. based.

Figure 5
figure5

Major journal producers of articles

The institutional home of articles is more international and European in focus and subject treatment. This European orientation situates the professoriate within a larger concern for disciplinary alignment and structural conditions facing professorial phenomena, but also reflect national historiographic and emerging narratives.

Again, the U.S.A. leads in article production, but European countries produce the majority of articles on the professoriate as a group. Again, Asia, Africa, and strangely, Latin America do not appear, or are negligible. Even if Euro-centered, language of dissemination is English by a large margin. However, even in non-English published journals, there is a movement to consider English written scholarship and this may affect this publication trend. The trend to European foci continues with reviews, even more so (Figure 6). Here, reviews exhibit not only Euro-centrism, but also again, a preponderance for professorial phenomena in relation to questions pertaining to religion, especially German and Polish contexts.

Figure 6
figure6

Major journal producers of reviews

However, institutional origins of book reviews constitute a mixed bag—still European based. Countries contributing to these book reviews are European in the main, and U.S.A. still produced more reviews. English again dominates dissemination of book reviews—but, significantly, other languages produced a corpus of reviews, attesting to the fact that book reviews are produced in non-English languages covering monographic production. Illustrative subjects retrieved indicate concentrations of phenomena related to professorial activity and prerogatives. Studies treating particular countries appear to be primarily the U.S.A.—however; European countries constitute a small nexus.

Case III: Science

Scientific education, disciplinary formation, academic career, and research discovery and evolution, are central to NEHJ’s. In this case, similar to medicine, historians of science dominate NEHJ’s. Indeed, educational issues are relative to the necessities and vicissitudes of NEHJ studies that treat individual sciences, further accentuating specialized approaches, especially internalist foci. However, publications reflect a stronger awareness of externalist preoccupations. Thus, more studies contend with how science is situated within the academy. Compounding this, is segmentation of disciplinary sciences and respective evolution and historical conditions affecting academic science, teaching, institutional programming, etc. NHEJ’s are well represented, encompassing general history of science journals and journals devoted to specific sciences, e.g. Ambix, as well as interdisciplinary journals, e.g. Social Science History (Figure 7). Moreover, human or social sciences also are included; specialized journals also publish relevant scholarship, not generally identified with education or science.Footnote 14

Figure 7
figure7

Major journal producers of articles

Scientific education at the tertiary level is very much an externalist pursuit. Structural conditions within institutions, and laboratory venues form a critical mass of studies, while individual studies tied to specific science, geology, microbiology, astronomy, mathematics, etc. form another pole of interest. Conditions of performing science within education functions, extends beyond the internalist purview.

As expected, English led languages of article dissemination, attesting to its dominance in the sciences at over 90%. However, globalization of language usage appears e.g. Turkish and Vietnamese; however, European language publishing constitutes a second node of concentration. Isis, a flagship history of science, clearly dominates reviewing—but, a spectrum of general and specialized NHEJ’s exist, representing regional, subdisciplinary, and period-specific foci (Figure 8).

Figure 8
figure8

Major journal producers of reviews

Mirroring article language dissemination, English again dominates the sample; not surprising, as most book reviewing journals were English published.

Universities and colleges, and research institutes dominated subjects published—but, again, they were linked to various scientific interests and topics. Studies on curricular changes, courses, research, etc. were of greater interest. Considerations of space, laboratories, and learning within those spaces as they interact with disciplinary and knowledge transference, as well as scientific instrumentation are evident. Honed subjects and treatments revealed a richer topography animating science and higher education. Interestingly, Asian country subjects appear in English language articles. An important caveat in these articles is their counterpoint to the idea of progress so often celebrated in university histories. Prosopographical studies are noted as well as work animated by social historical perspectives.

Case IV: Medicine

Medical, nursing, health care education and higher learning provides ample evidence of NEHJ coverage. A constellation of subjects covered by historians who may or, may not be physicians, but are historians of medicine--generally, who are in the majority not educationalist historians.Footnote 15 Articles may be internalist, emphasizing health care methodology, surgical techniques, patient care, or disease vectors and treatment. It is equally important to note that historians of medicine and medical education publish in respective venues where impact is greatest. The specialized nature of history of medicine influences studies in NEHJ’s so that the internalist perspective exerts a greater presence, similar to the history of the sciences. Often the techniques of medicine or studies of teaching practice in the health fields tend to offset externalist studies. However, a larger horizon emerges when societal or political forces are broached; training, teaching, student life, and professionalization are seen in a wider context. Studies of medical faculties and higher educational institutions devoted to education form a core of NEHJ literature. Critical to note, historians of medicine tend to merge both internalist and externalist work within NEHJ’s.

This sample reveals a dominance held by NHEJ’s in medicine and health sciences history. Medical biography, including one’s training and education experiences, are well delineated in among these journals. Some multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary scholarship appears. Social historical approaches are utilized, and attempts to frame medical education in a larger context is apparent (Figure 9).

Figure 9
figure9

Major journal producers of articles

Again, English is the dominant linguistic conveyance for medical education. European linguistic strength is noted—with French, German, and Spanish, followed by Portuguese, which is surprising, and Russian. Chinese language formed a notable exception to this. As reviews contribute to the dissemination of knowledge, again, history of medicine stood out above other journals. However, provincial and state organs were in evidence (Figure 10).

Figure 10
figure10

Journal origin of reviews

In terms of language of book reviews, English was the primary hegemonic linguistic conveyance.

Specialized subfields as history of medicine tend to hone their respective intellectual demarcations, maintaining interests in higher education subjects apart from educationalist preoccupations. Illustrative subjects for medicine and education concentrate on the following. Medical education, preparation of physicians, medical institutional narratives, socialization, social contexts, and professionalization issues--all these topics mesh within the larger contextualization of medical and health related education at the tertiary level. When NHEJ book reviews are examined specialized interests, e.g. anatomy, hospitals, critics of medical education, or dissection, etc. address more particularistic monographic studies. A particular interest in biographical work borders on the prosopographical.

Additional Observations

This case study approach demonstrates the necessity to cast a broader net to capture the global impact NEHJ’s have in capturing a richly multi-dimensional corpus relevant for higher education history. Fruitful perspectives, innovative approaches and research techniques, theoretical discoveries and methodologies all contribute to the growing global nature of education history, and higher education history in particular. NEHJ’s can deliver benefit to expanding intellectual and historiographic resources so necessary for a vital and energetic historiography of higher education history.

A necessary caveat to these illustrations is the tendency for celebratory narratives, if not filiopietistic approaches in local, provincial, and state organs. As in most professional endeavors, these tendencies mark these contributions, especially in provincial society organs. Generally, historiographical rigor is absent; however, de visu examination reveals that NEHJ’s also include obituaries, short notices that may border on the celebratory, especially in specialized journals focused on a profession, or disciplinary domain. Medicine and science are particular examples. Official individual university histories too often exhibit shades of celebratory effervescence, some of which appear in highly specialized subfields as history of a particular science, e.g. geology, astronomy, mathematics, or medicine, pharmacy, etc. Moreover, NEHJ’s are more likely to be interdisciplinary, if not sub-disciplinary in nature, and clearly, they are more internalist driven.

There appears to be a discernible progression toward globalization; that is, a discernable international trend in NEHJ publication. It is small, but indicative of interest in transcending national preoccupations. However, a true transnational historiography is absent, awaiting comparative, if not a synergistic methodological imperative to consider. There is little discernible comparative analysis focused on higher education institutions, professoriate, medical or scientific education, other than national contexts. This is similar to the paucity of studies in transnational approaches to history of museum education. English linguistic dominance, some would say imperialistic, can both deform or inform future NEHJ scholarship and dissemination. Moreover, bibliometric evidence is only an entrée, more in-depth, nuanced analysis, and systematic content analysis must be pursued to critically and historiographically capture and explicate the NEHJ corpus.

In terms of techniques utilized in NEHJ research, all four cases demonstrate interest in and, informed by reliance on approaches borrowed from social science and other humanities disciplines. Moreover, judicious use of statistical methods, theoretical approaches, e.g. applied social methodologies, at times melded with social scientific modeling, are evident. Complementing these, illustrations appear, graphical presentation supports data reliance within exposition.

This foray into NEHJ’s publishing higher education history studies offers a snapshot of what is occurring in the larger academic phenomenon pertaining to education history publication. It is meant to offer an open window and situate NEHJ’s within a wider international context framing what is beyond the traditional scope and purview of history of education journals entertaining history of higher education. NEHJ’s do examine education from a different set of questions posed of education, not in opposition to educationalist protocols and scholarly objectives, but as a complement to the history of education enterprise. NEHJ’s add a different critical historical dimension to investigating education’s past. Their value lies in their different approaches and perspectives, and crucial insights that offer potential synergies to the academic field of the history of education, enlarging the topography of published scholarship. For historians of higher education, this is imperative if their research and scholarship is to emerge from splendid isolation.

Notes

  1. 1.

    “There is a tendency of historians of education to confine themselves overly to specialized journals and a pre-determined audience; and finally, the readiness of educational researchers who are not historians of education to adopt an historical dimension in their work.” J. Goodman & I. Grosvenor (2009) “Educational Research—History of Education a Curious Case?” Oxford Review of Education, 35, (2009): 601–616.

  2. 2.

    Jean-Pierre V. M. Hérubel, “Clio’s Presence, or where is History of Education to be found?” ISCHE Chicago August 18–19, 2016; for definitional approach, see Jean-Pierre V.M. Hérubel. “Being Undisciplined; or, Traversing Disciplinary Configurations in Social Science and Humanities Databases: Conceptual Considerations for Interdisciplinarity and Multidisciplinarity,” in Steven W. Witt and Lynne M. Rudasill, eds. Social science Libraries: Interdisciplinary Collections, Services, Networks (Berlin: De Gruyter Saur, IFLA Publications, c2010): 25–39; Jean-Pierre V.M. Hérubel. “Disciplinary Morphologies, Interdisciplinarities: Conceptualizations and Implications for Academic Libraries,” In Daniel C. Mack and Craig Gibson, Interdisciplinarity and Academic Libraries: ACRL Librarianship No. 66 (Chicago: ACRL, 2012): 17–53.

  3. 3.

    For discussion of bibliometric analysis, consult Jean-Pierre V.M. Hérubel, Anne L. Buchanan, "Citation Studies in the Humanities and Social Sciences." A Selective and Annotatated Bibliography." Collection Management 18 (1994): 89–137. For an example of this bibliometric approach, consult Anne L Buchanan, Jean-Pierre V.M. Hérubel, "Tracing Interdisciplinarity in Contemporary Historiography Using SSCI: The Case of Toynbee, McNeil, and Braudel." Collection Building 13 (Fall 1993): 1–5; Jean-Pierre V. M. Hérubel, and Anne L. Buchanan, "Disciplinary, Interdisciplinary, and Subdisciplinary Linkages in Studies Journals." Science and Science of Science 3 (1994): 15–24. Anne L. Buchanan, Jean-Pierre V. M. Hérubel, "Disciplinary Culture, Bibliometrics, and Historical Studies: Preliminary Observations," Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian 15 (1997): 37–53.

  4. 4.

    For insightful observations, see Frederick Potter Gardner, Institutional Histories: Their Contribution to Understanding the American College and University (Ph.D. dissertstion, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1976); consult also, John Henry Newman, The Idea of a University (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1982); William Clark, Academic Charisma and the Origins of the Research University (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006); Hanna Holborn Gray, Searching for Utopia: Universities and Their Histories (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012).

  5. 5.

    For an informative entrée to history of higher education, especially universities, see Carol J Summerfield; Mary Elizabeth Devine; Anthony Levi. International Dictionary of University Histories (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998).

  6. 6.

    Exe Libris: the UK History of Education Society’s Online Bibliography https://projects.exeter.ac.uk/hoebibliography/index.php Retrieved April 4, 2020.

  7. 7.

    For a sound introduction to these historiographic approaches, see Steven Shapin, “Discipline and Bounding: The History and Sociology of Science as Seen through the Externalism-Internalism Debate,” History of Science 30 (1992): 333–369; Donald R Kelley, “Intellectual History and Cultural History: The Inside and the Outside,” History of the Human Sciences 15 (2002): 1–19.

  8. 8.

    For an interesting discussion of academic scientific disciplines consult, Elinor S. Shaffer, “Romantic Philosophy and the Organization of the Disciplines: The Founding of the Humboldt University of Berlin,” in Andrew Cunningham and Nicholas Jardine, eds. Romanticism and the Sciences (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). For insightful approaches to academic culture, consult Ana Simões, Maria Paula Diogo, Kostas Gavroglu, eds., Sciences in the Universities of Europe, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science 309 (Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht, 2015).

  9. 9.

    See Jean-Pierre V. M. Hérubel, “Acknowledging Clio's Lesser Children: The Importance of Journals for Historical Research and Scholarship.” Journal of Scholarly Publishing 39 (2008): 241–256.

  10. 10.

    See Jean-Pierre V. M. Hérubel, "Tradition and Protean Nature—Journals and Scholarly Communication: A Review Essay." Libraries & Culture 41 (2006): 233–257.

  11. 11.

    For further insight, see Tony Becher, Academic Tribes and Territories: intellectual enquiry and the cultures of disciplines (Milton Keynes: OUP, 1989).

  12. 12.

    See Jean-Pierre V. M. Hérubel, "Historical Bibliometrics: Its Purpose and Significance to the History of Disciplines." Libraries & Culture 34 (Fall 1999): 380–388; Jean-Pierre V.M. Hérubel, Goedeken, Edward A. "Identifying the Intellectual Contours of a Historical Specialty: Geographical, Temporal, and Subject Emphases of the Journal of the History of Ideas." Serials Librarian 55 (2008): 276–295. For an illustrative example, see Fritz Ringer, “A Sociography of German Academics, 1863–1938.” Central European History 25 (September 1992): 251–280.

  13. 13.

    For locating academic communities via bibliometric approaches, Jean-Pierre V. M. Hérubel, and Edward A. Goedeken, "Using the Arts and Humanities Citation Index to Identify a Community Interdisciplinary Historians: An Exploratory Bibliometric Study." The Serials Librarian 41 (2001): 85–98. see Gómez Morales, Yuri Jack; Jaraba-Barrios, Bruno; Guerrero-Castro, Javier; López-López, Wilson. “Entre Internacionalización y Consolidación de Comunidades Académicas Locales. Sobre la Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología.” Revista Colombiana de Psicología 21 (2012): 97–110.

  14. 14.

    See Marco Beretta; Claudio Pogliano; Pietro Redondi. Journals and History of Science (Firenze: L.S. Olschki, 1998).

  15. 15.

    For an illustrative example, see “Trading Zones or Citadels? Professionalization and Intellectual Change in the History of Medicine,” Chapter. 11, pp. 237–261, in Frank Huisman; John Harley Warner, eds. Locating Medical History: The Stories and Their Meanings (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004).

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Hérubel, JP.V.M. Clio’s Non-education History Journal’s (NEHJ): Broadening Journal Publishing for History of Higher Education. Pub Res Q 36, 553–569 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12109-020-09764-8

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Keywords

  • Biblometric
  • Disciplines
  • History of higher education
  • History journals