The American Sociologist

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 135–171 | Cite as

Vision and Mission of Sociology: Learning from the Russian Historical Experience

  • Pavel SorokinEmail author


The present study demonstrates that the path of the “organic public sociology” (proposed by Michael Burowoy in his famous call of the 2004) as the dominating mode of sociological practice in the national context can be menacing with the serious pitfalls manifested in broad historical perspective. We reveal the four pitfalls basing on the analysis of the Russian experience through the last 150 years. First, the over-politicization and ideological biasness of sociological activities; second, the “personal sacrifice” of sociologist as a romanticized practice, potentially harmful for the discipline; third, the difficulties of the professional sociology institutionalization; fourth, the deprivation of the policy sociology development. Analyzing the history of Russian sociology in the context of the current international discussions, we give particular reference to the idea of the “Scientized Environment Supporting Actorhood” elaborated by John Meyer. We suggest the mode of communication between sociology and society, which, in our view, could be helpful for improving their interactions in various local, national and global contexts in the XXIst century. This mode escapes the political emphasis and ideological claims but rather concentrates on the more fundamental ethical issues. It also tries to overcome the limitations of the contemporary professional mainstream (instead of idealizing it). Finally, it presents itself to the publics in the understandable way, while remaining properly scientifically validated (however, avoiding the exaggerated accent on the statistical procedures and fitishization of the natural science’ principles (“numerology” and “quantofrenia”)). The public activities of the prominent sociologist Pitirim Sorokin in the American period of his career are a good example of this approach to the interactions with society.


Russian sociology Methodology Public sociology Professional sociology Sociology and society Scientized environment supporting actorhood Pitirim Sorokin John Meyer 


  1. Adorjan, M. C. (2013). Igniting constructionist imaginations: social constructionism’s absence and potential contribution to public sociology. The American Sociologist, 44(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alford, R. R. (1998). The craft of inquiry: theories, methods, evidence. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Back, L. (2012). Live sociology: social research and its futures. The Sociological Review, 60(S1), 18–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Batygin, G. (1998). Continuity of Russian sociological tradition. In V.A. Yadov (Ed.) Sociology in Russia, Moscow. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  5. Batygin, G.S. (2001). The letter to B.M. Firsov in Firsov, B.(2001). History of soviet sociology in 1950–1980: lections. Saint-Petersburg. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. Batygin, G.S. (2005). “Social scientists” in the times of crisis. In Social sciences in the post-soviet Russia. Moscow. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. Belfer, E. (1978). Zemlya vs. volya—from narodnichestvo to Marxism∗. Europe-Asia Studies, 30(3), 297–312.Google Scholar
  8. Berdyaev, N. (1944). Freedom and the spirit. Geoffrey Bles: The Centenary Press.Google Scholar
  9. Boronoev, A.O. & Ermakovich U.M. (1996). Kovalevsky M.M. and institutionalization of sociology in Russia. Sotsiologicheskije Issledovanija, 8, 120–126. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  10. Brady, D. (2004). Why public sociology may fail. Social Forces, 82(4), 1629–1638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braithwaite, J. (2005). For public social science. The British Journal of Sociology, 56(3), 345–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brook, P., & Darlington, R. (2013). Partisan, scholarly and active: arguments for an organic public sociology of work. Work, Employment and Society, 27(2), 232–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Browder, R. P., & Kerensky, A. F. (Eds.). (1961). The Russian Provisional Government, 1917: Documents (Vol. 27). Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Burawoy, M. (2005). For public sociology. American Sociological Review, 70(1), 4–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burawoy, M. (2009). Public sociology in the age of Obama 1. Innovation–The European Journal of Social Science Research, 22(2), 189–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burawoy, M. (2014). Introduction: sociology as a combat sport. Current Sociology, 62(2), 140–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burbank, J. (1986). Intelligentsia and revolution. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Chase-Dunn, C. (2005). Global public social science. The American Sociologist, 36(3–4), 121–132.Google Scholar
  19. Christensen, T. (2013). No path to paradise: deconstructing the promise of public sociology. The American Sociologist, 44(1), 23–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clair, J. M., Clark, C., Hinote, B. P., Robinson, C. O., & Wasserman, J. A. (2007). Developing, integrating, and perpetuating new ways of applying sociology to health, medicine, policy, and everyday life. Social Science & Medicine, 64(1), 248–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crompton, R. (2008). Forty years of sociology: some comments. Sociology, 42(6), 1218–1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. D'Agostino, A. (1977). Marxism and the Russian anarchists. Germinal Press.Google Scholar
  23. Danilevsky, N. (1962). The Slav role in world civilization. In The mind of modern Russia: historical and political thought of Russia’s great age. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  24. Davis, H., & Erofeev, S. (2011). Reframing society and culture in Post-Soviet Russia. Comparative Sociology, 10(5), 710–734.Google Scholar
  25. Davydov, A. Y. (2013). The power in the times of NEP: the softening of the dictatorship. Theory and Practice of the Social Development, 11.Google Scholar
  26. Desai, P. (2014). Perestroika in perspective: the design and dilemmas of soviet reform. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Dimke, D.V. (2012). Classic without classics: Social and cultural origins of soviet sociology style. Sotsiologicheskije Issledovanija, 6, 97–106. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  28. Dolinin, A. S. (1987). Dostoevsky among the members of the petrashevsky circle. Russian Studies in Literature, 23(3), 137–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dostoevsky, F. (1994). Demons (translation). Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky (New York: Vintage, 1994), 419.Google Scholar
  30. Durrenberger, E. P. (1984). Chayanov, peasants, and economic anthropology. Inc: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  31. Efendiev A. G., Sorokin P. S. & Balabanova E. S. (2015). Crisis in russian sociology: main problems and thematic deadlocks. Sotsiologicheskije Issledovanija, 9, 36–49. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  32. Efremenko, D., & Evseeva, Y. (2012). Studies of social solidarity in Russia: tradition and modern trends. The American Sociologist, 43(4), 349–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Erlihman, V.V. (2004). The loss of population in the XXth century. Moscow — ISBN 5-93165-107-1. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  34. Firsov, B. (2001). History of soviet sociology in 1950–1980: lections. Saint-Petersburg. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  35. Fürst, J. (2013). Where did all the normal people go?: another look at the soviet 1970s. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 14(3), 621–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gabriel, J., Harding, J., Hodgkinson, P., Kelly, L., & Khan, A. (2009). Public sociology: working at the interstices. The American Sociologist, 40(4), 309–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gane, N. (2011). Measure, value and the current crises of sociology. The Sociological Review, 59(s2), 151–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goldman, W. Z. (2007). Terror and democracy in the age of Stalin. The social dynamics of repression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Golosenko, I.A. (1978). The process of institutionalization of bourgeois sociology in Russia in the late XIXth-early XXth century. Sotsiologicheskije Issledovanija, 2, 170–179. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  40. Golovin, N. N. (1931). The Russian Army in World War I. Shoe String Pr Inc. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  41. Gutnov, D.A. (2001). Russian Higher School of Social Sciences in Paris 1901–1906. History and Historians, 1. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  42. Harrison, M. (1979). Chayanov and the Marxists. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 7(1), 86–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Holmwood, J. (2007). Sociology as public discourse and professional practice: A critique of Michael Burawoy*. Sociological Theory, 25(1), 46–66.Google Scholar
  44. Inglis, C. (2005). Comments on Michael burawoy’s ASA presidential address. The British Journal of Sociology, 56(3), 383–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jeffries, V. (2005). Pitirim a. Sorokin’s integralism and public sociology. The American Sociologist, 36(3–4), 66–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kamensky Z.A. (1980). Moscow circle of philosophers. Moscow. P. 327. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  47. Kelly, B., & Farahbakhsh, K. (2013). Public sociology and the democratization of technology: drawing on user-led research to achieve mutual education. The American Sociologist, 44(1), 42–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kovalevsky, M.M. (1910) Sociology. Volume 1. Saint-Petersburg. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  49. Kovalevsky, E. (1938). Maxim Kovalevsky. The Slavonic and East European Review, 678-686.Google Scholar
  50. Lavrov, P. (1965). Historical letters. Philosophy and sociology (2). Moscow. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  51. Lee, C. K., & Shen, Y. (2009). China the paradox and possibility of a public sociology of labor. Work and Occupations, 36(2), 110–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lenin, V.I. (1941). New economic movements in the life of peasants. Omnibus edition, Vol. 1, p.3–58. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  53. Lieven, D. C. (1983). Russia and the origins of the first world war. Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lipsitz, G. (2008). Breaking the chains and steering the ship: how activism can help change teaching and scholarship. In C. R. Hale (Ed.), Engaging contradictions: theory, politics, and methods of activist scholarship (pp. 88–111). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  55. Lossky, N. O. (1951). History of Russian philosophy. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  56. Louçã, F. (1999). Nikolai Kondratiev and the early consensus and dissensions about history and statistics. History of Political economy, 31(1), 169–205.Google Scholar
  57. Makarov V.G. & Hristoforov V.S. (2003). Passengers of the “philosophical ship”. The questions of philosophy (7), 113–137. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  58. Martindale, D. (1975). Prominent sociologists since world war. H. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.Google Scholar
  59. McKie, L., & Ryan, L. (2012). Introduction to E-special: exploring trends and challenges in sociological research. Sociology, 46(6), 1–7.Google Scholar
  60. McLaughlin, N. (2005). Canada’s impossible science: historical and institutional origins of the coming crisis in Anglo-Canadian sociology. The Canadian Journal of Sociology, 30(1), 1–40.Google Scholar
  61. McLaughlin, N., Kowalchuk, L., & Turcotte, K. (2005). Why sociology does not need to be saved: analytic reflections on public sociologies. The American Sociologist, 36(3–4), 133–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Medushevsky, A.N. (2010). Constitutional projects in Russia in XVIII-early XXth century. Moscow. p. 640. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  63. Mendez, J. B. (2008). Globalizing scholar activism: opportunities and dilemmas through a feminist lens. In C. R. Hale (Ed.), Engaging contradictions: theory, politics, and methods of activist scholarship (pp. 136–163). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  64. Meyer, J. W. (2010). World society, institutional theories, and the actor. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Miller, M. A. (1986). The Russian revolutionary émigrés, 1825–1870 (No. 2). Johns Hopkins Univ Pr.Google Scholar
  66. Mironenko, I. & Sorokin, P. (2015). Culture in psychology: Perennial problems and the contemporary methodological crisis. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 35--45. doi: 10.11621/pir.2015.0403.
  67. Misztal, B. A. (2009). A Nobel trinity: jane Addams, Emily Greene Balch and Alva Myrdal. The American Sociologist, 40(4), 332–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mochulsky, K. (1971). Dostoevsky: his life and work. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Morton, M., Dolgon, C., Maher, T., & Pennell, J. (2012). Civic engagement and public sociology two “movements” in search of a mission. Journal of Applied Social Science, 6(1), 5–30.Google Scholar
  70. Nabudere, D. W. (2008). Research, activism, and knowledge production. In C. R. Hale (Ed.), Engaging contradictions: theory, politics, and methods of activist scholarship (pp. 62–87). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  71. Nichols, L. T. (2005). Editor’s introduction: a conversation about “public sociology”. The American Sociologist, 36(3), 3–4.Google Scholar
  72. Nichols, L. T. (2009a). Public sociology: problematics, publicity, and possibilities. The American Sociologist, 40(4), 233–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nichols, L. T. (2009b). Burawoy’s holistic sociology and Sorokin’s integralism: a conversation of ideas. Handbook of Public sociology, 27-46.Google Scholar
  74. Nichols, L. T. (2012). Sorokin as lifelong Russian intellectual: the enactment of an historically rooted sensibility. The American Sociologist, 43(4), 374–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nielsen, F. (2004). The vacant “we”: remarks on public sociology. Social Forces, 82(4), 1619–1627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Noy, D. (2007). Principles for organic public sociology: reflections on publicly engaged research in the San Francisco homeless policy. Societies Without Borders, 2(2), 260–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Osipov, G. (2004). Renaissance of Russian sociology (1960–1990): historical review. Sotsiologicheskije Issledovanija, 3, 24–30. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  78. Osipov, G. (2009). Russian sociology: Past and present. Sotsiologicheskije Issledovanija, 3, 8–14. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  79. Pantin, I.K., Plimak, E.G., & Horos V.G. (1986). Revolutionary tradition in Russia: 1783–1883. Moscow. Mysl. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  80. Paperno, I. (1988). Chernyshevsky and the age of realism: a study in the semiotics of behavior. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Petrov, N., Lipman, M., & Hale, H. E. (2014). Three dilemmas of hybrid regime governance: Russia from Putin to Putin. Post-Soviet Affairs, 30(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Prokhorov, A. (2014). The thaw: soviet society and culture during the 1950s and 1960s. Studies in Russian and Soviet Cinema, 8(3), 241–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Radaev, V. (2013). Russian sociology in search for its identity. Sotsiologicheskije Issledovanija, 7, 3–17. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  84. Raeff, M. (1966). The Decembrist Movement. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-hall.Google Scholar
  85. Rees, E. A. (1987). State control in soviet Russia: the rise and fall of the workers' and peasants' inspectorate, 1920–34. Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
  86. Revers, M. (2009). Sociologists in the press. The American Sociologist, 40(4), 272–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rodríguez-Garavito, C. (2014). Amphibious sociology: dilemmas and possibilities of public sociology in a multimedia world. Current Sociology, 62(2), 156–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Romanovsky, N. (2012). The quality of sociological knowledge (editor’s comments). Sotsiologicheskije Issledovanija, 5, 39–47. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  89. Rusanov, N. (1907). P.L. Lavrov (essay about his life and activities), Byuloe (2). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  90. Rutland, P. (2013). Neoliberalism and the Russian transition. Review of International Political Economy, 20(2), 332–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sarabianov, D. V. (1990). Pavel Andreevich Fedotov. The painter of the RSFSR, p. 176, ISBN: 5–7370-0213-6. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  92. Saunders, D. (2014). Russia in the age of reaction and reform 1801–1881. Routledge.Google Scholar
  93. Savage, M., & Burrows, R. (2007). The coming crisis of empirical sociology. Sociology, 41(5), 885–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shanin, T. (1986). Russia, 1905–07: revolution as a moment of truth. The roots of otherness: Russia's turn of the century. Volume 2, Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  95. Shortall, S. (2013). Sociology, knowledge and evidence in rural policy making. Sociologia Ruralis, 53(3), 265–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shrum, W., & Castle, L. (2014). “Visionary” sociology: diversions of public sociology and audiovisual solutions. The American Sociologist, 45(4), 412–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sigelman, L. (2010). Terminological interchange between sociology and political science. Social Science Quarterly, 91(4), 883–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Simon, R. (2010). Passive revolution, perestroika, and the emergence of the new Russia. Capital & Class, 34(3), 429–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sogomonov, A.U. (1989). P.A. Sorokin and M.M. Kovalevsky. Sotsiologicheskije Issledovanija, 3. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  100. Sokolov, M. (2011). Labor markets, stratification and careers in soviet sociology. Economic sociology, 12(4), 37–72. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  101. Sorokin, P.A. (1914) [1912]. Leo Tolstoy as a Philosopher. English Translation by L. T. Nichols. In B. V. Johnston (ed), Pitirim A. Sorokin: On the Practice of Sociology (pp 133–150). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  102. Sorokin, P. A. (1954) The letter to Mother Olowienka,
  103. Sorokin, P. A. (1956). The American sex revolution. Boston, MA: Porter Sargent.Google Scholar
  104. Sorokin, P. A. (1962). Social and cultural dynamics (Vol. 1). Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  105. Sorokin, P. A. (1964). The basic trends of our times. College & University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Sorokin, P. (2015). The Russian Sociological Tradition from the XIXth Century until the Present: Key Features and Possible Value for Current Discussions. The American Sociologist, 46(3), 341–355.Google Scholar
  107. Sorokin, P. (2016). ‘Global sociology’ in different disciplinary practices: Current conditions, problems and perspectives. Current Sociology, 64(1), 41–59.Google Scholar
  108. Sorokin, P. A., & Lunden, W. A. (1959). Power and morality. Boston, MA: Porter Sargent.Google Scholar
  109. Spector, I. (2005). The golden age of Russian literature. Kessinger Publishing.Google Scholar
  110. Sprague, J., & Laube, H. (2009). Institutional barriers to doing public sociology: experiences of feminists in the academy. The American Sociologist, 40(4), 249–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Stacey, J. (2004). Marital suitors court social science spin-sters: the unwittingly conservative effects of public sociology. Social Problems, 51(10), 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Stanziani, A. (2008). Serfs, slaves, or wage earners? The legal status of labour in Russia from a comparative perspective, from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. Journal of Global History, 3(2), 183–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sundar, N. (2014). In times of civil war: on being a schizophrenic (public) sociologist. Current Sociology, 62(2), 168–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Svendsen, G. T., & Svendsen, G. L. H. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of social capital: the troika of sociology, political science and economics. Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  115. Temkina, A., & Zdravomyslova, E. (2014). Gender’s crooked path: feminism confronts Russian patriarchy. Current Sociology, 62(2), 253–270.Google Scholar
  116. Timasheff, N. (1966). The sociological theories of Maksim M. Kovalevsky. In A. Simirenko (Ed.), Soviet sociology. Historical antecedents and current appraisals (pp. 83–99). Chicago: Quadrangle books.Google Scholar
  117. Tittle, C. R. (2004). The arrogance of public sociology. Social Forces, 82(4), 1639–1643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tolstova, U. (2013). Has the efficiency of sociological research in Russia increased in the last 100 years? Sotsiologicheskije Issledovanija, 7, 59–69. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  119. Toshchenko, Zh.T. (2013). New trends in the development of Russian sociology. Sotsiologicheskije Issledovanija, 4, 3–13. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  120. Townsley, E. (2014). Science, expertise and profession in the post–normal discipline. The American Sociologist, 46(1), 18–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Trigilia, C. (2007). Unbalanced growth why is economic sociology stronger in theory than in policies? Current Sociology, 55(1), 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Troitsky, N.A. (1997). Russia in the XIXth century. Lectures. Moscow. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  123. Turner, B. S. (2006). British sociology and public intellectuals: consumer society and imperial decline. The British journal of sociology, 57(2), 169–188.Google Scholar
  124. Turner, J. H. (2005). Is public sociology such a good idea? The American Sociologist, 36(3–4), 27–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Turner, S. (2007). Public sociology and democratic theory. Sociology, 41(5), 785–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Vagner, V.A. (1913). M.M. Kovalevsky The scholar, the public figure and the citizen. New ideas in sociology (1). Saint-Petersburg. (in Russian) Google Scholar
  127. Vilenskaya, E. (1979). N.K. Mikhailovsky and his ideological role in narodnichestvo movement of 70- beginning of 80-s of XIX century. Moscow. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  128. von Holdt, K. (2014). Critical engagement in fields of power: cycles of sociological activism in post-apartheid South Africa. Current Sociology, 62(2), 181-196.Google Scholar
  129. Walicki, A. (2010). Milestones and Russian intellectual history. Studies in East European Thought, 62(1), 101–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wallerstein, I. (2000). Globalization or the age of transition? A long-term view of the trajectory of the world-system. International Sociology, 15(2), 249–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wieviorka, M. (2014). Sociology’s interventions: engaging the media and politics while remaining a social scientist. Current Sociology, 62(2), 243–252. doi: 10.1177/0011392113515562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Yadov, V. and Grathoff R. (1994). Introduction. Proceedings of the Simposium of Russian Academy of Science, Institute of Sociology (pp. 3–5). Moscow. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  133. Yudkevich, M. (2014). The Russian university: recovery and rehabilitation. Studies in Higher Education, 39(8), 1463–1474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zafirovski, M. (2014). Rational choice requiem: the decline of an economic paradigm and its implications for sociology. The American Sociologist, 45(4), 432–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zayanchkovsky, P. (1954). Serfdom abolishment in Russia. Moscow, 292. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  136. Zayanchkovsky, P. (1970). Russian autocracy in the end of the XIXth century: political reaction of the 80s-90s. Moscow. Mysl. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  137. Zdravomyslova, E. (2008). Make way for professional sociology!'Public sociology in the Russian context. Current Sociology, 56(3), 405–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Research in Social Organization of CompanyNational Research University Higher School of EconomicsMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations