Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Chilly Environments, Stratification, and Productivity Differences

  • Published:
The American Sociologist Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Productivity differences between sociology PhD’s were examined controlling for both human capital and life style differences. Productivity was defined in two ways. First, we looked at differences in article productivity to date. Next, differences in the average productivity of faculty (defined as total articles to date divided by years of experience) were explored. We aimed to capture how working in a chilly environment shapes productivity differences among faculty—especially between faculty working in ranked and unranked PhD programs. Faculty who worked in a ranked PhD department were significantly more productive than others. However, women in these departments were much more likely than men to report being in a chilly environment. Among faculty working in unranked PhD programs in sociology, two variables were critical in understanding productivity differences (age the PhD was awarded and chilly work environment). Faculty who felt welcomed in their department published more than others all else equal. Being in a chilly environment appears detrimental to establishing a publishing career for these faculty.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Albelda, R., & Tilly, C. (1997). Glass ceilings and bottomless pits. Boston: South End.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anonymous Authors. (1999). Tenure in a chilly climate. Political Science and Politics, 32(1), 91–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ashenfelter, O., & Krueger, A. (1992). Estimates of the economic return to schooling from a new sample of twins. National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper #4143. Cambridge, MA: NBER.

  • Barnett, R. C., & Baruch, G. K. (1987). Determinants of fathers’ participation in family work. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 29–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Becker, G. (1964). Human capital. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • Becker, G. (1985). Human capital, effort, and the sexual division of labor. Journal of Labor Economics, 3, 33–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bedeian, A. G., & Field, H. S. (1980). Academic stratification in graduate management programs. Journal of Management, 6, 99–115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blair, J. H. (2003). Hiring practices in finance education. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 62, 429–438.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caplow, T., & McGee, R. J. (1958). The academic marketplace. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chrisler, J. (1998). Teacher vs. scholar: role conflict for women. In L. Collins, J. Chrisler & K. Quina (Eds.), Career strategies for women in academe: Arming Athena. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cole, S., & Cole, J. (1967). Scientific output and recognition. American Sociological Review, 32, 37–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Condran, J. G., & Bode, J. G. (1982). Rashomon, working wives, and family division of labor. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44, 421–426.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Conefrey, T. (1997). Gender, culture and authority in a university life sciences laboratory. Discourse & Society, 8, 313–340.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crane, D. (1965). Scientists at major and minor universities. American Sociological Review, 30, 699–714.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crawford, M., & MacLeod, M. (1990). Gender in the college classroom. Sex Roles, 23, 101–122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Danziger, N. (1982). Patterns of earnings in the academic system. Sociological Focus, 15, 203–217.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davis, D., & Astin, H. (1990). Life cycle, career patterns and gender patterns and gender stratification in academe: breaking myths and exposing truths. In S. Lie & V. O’Leary (Eds.), Storming the tower: Women in the academic world. East-Brunswick: GP.

    Google Scholar 

  • Doyle, C., & Hind, P. (1998). Occupational stress, burn-out and job status in female academics. Gender, Work and Organizations, 5, 67–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Etzkowitz, H., Kemelgor, C., Neuschatz, M., & Uzzi, B. (1994). How women react to and cope with chilly environments: barriers to women in academic science and engineering. In W. Pearson Jr. & I. Fechter (Eds.), Who will do science? Educating the next generation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Faver, C. A., & Fox, M. (1986). Research, publication productivity, and applied social science. Sociological Spectrum, 6, 379–396.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferguson, M. (1992). Is the classroom still a chilly climate for women? College Student Journal, 26, 507–511.

    Google Scholar 

  • Genovese, R. G., & Fava, S. (1998). Women physicists: where are they? Current Research on Occupations and Professions, 10, 259–282.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gibbons, A. (1992). Key issue: tenure. Science, 255, 1386–1388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, E. (1979). Effect of same-sex role models on the subsequent academic productivity of scholars. American Psychologist, 34, 407–410.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, A. (1991). Top producers of women mathematics doctorates. Notices, 8, 715–719.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacobs, J. (2004). The faculty time divide. Sociological Forum, 4, 18–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kauffman, D., & Perry, F. (1989). Institutionalized sexism in universities: the case of geographically bound academic women. NWSA Journal, 1, 644–659.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keith, B., & Babchuk, N. (1998). The quest for institutional recognition. Social Forces, 76, 1495–1533.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keith, B., Layne, J., Babchuk, N., & Johnson, K. (2002). The context of scientific achievement: sex status, organizational environments, and the timing of publication on scholarship outcomes. Social Forces, 4, 1253–1281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knudsen, D. D., & Vaughan, T. R. (1969). Quality in graduate education. American Sociologist, 4, 12–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koplin, V. W., & Singell, A. L. (1996). The gender composition and scholarly performance of economics departments. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 49, 408–423.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Long, J. S. (1992). Measures of sex differences in scientific productivity. Social Forces, 71, 159–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mason, M. A. (2002). Do babies matter? Academe, 19, 72–89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Merton, R. K. (1968). The Matthew effect in science. Science, 159, 56–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mincer, J. (1974). Schooling, experience, and earnings. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mincer, J. A., & Polachek, S. (1974). Family investments in human capital: earnings of women. Journal of Political Economy, 82, 76–108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Noordenbos, G. (1990). Publications of men and women academics: a comparative study. International Sociological Association, Paper Presentation.

  • Olsen, D., Maple, S., & Stage, F. (1995). Women and minority faculty job satisfaction: professional role interests professional satisfactions and institutional fit. Journal of Higher Education, 66, 267–284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Osborne, R. L. (1995). The continuum of violence against women in Canadian universities. Women’s Studies International Forum, 18, 637–646.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Overall, C. (1998). A feminist I: Reflections from academia. New York: Broadview.

    Google Scholar 

  • Poloma, Y. A., & Garland, N. (1971). The married professional woman. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 33, 531–539.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prentice, S. (2000). The conceptual politics of chilly climate controversies. Gender and Education, 12, 195–207.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pyke, S. W. (1997). Education and the woman question. Canadian Psychology/ Psychologie Canadienne, 38, 154–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reskin, B. (1977). Scientific productivity and the reward structure of science. American Sociological Review, 42, 491–504.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reskin, B. (1978). Scientific productivity, sex, and location in the institution of science. American Journal of Sociology, 83, 1235–1243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenfeld, R. (1987). Gender, academic mobility, and career success. Social Science, 72, 195–197.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schultz, T. W. (1963). The economic value of education. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scott, R. R. (1981). Black faculty productivity and interpersonal academic contacts. The Journal of Negro Education, 50, 224–236.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shelton, B., & John, D. (1990). Patterns of housework and childcare among cohabitation and married women and men. Paper presented at the 85th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Washington, D.C.

  • Spence, M. (1976). Signaling and screening. Harvard Institute of Economic Research. Discussion Paper #467. Cambridge: Harvard University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stack, S. (1994). The effects of gender on publishing: the case of sociology. Sociological Focus, 27, 81–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suitor, J. J., Mecom, D., & Feld, I. (2001). Gender, household labor, and scholarly productivity among university professors. Gender Issues, 19, 50–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Valian, V. (1998). Running in place. The Sciences, 38(1), 18–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wanner, R., Lewis, L., & Gregorio, D. (1981). Research productivity in academia. Sociology of Education, 54, 238–253.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, J. (2002). Balancing act: how to find a balance between work and family. Chronicle of Higher Education-Career Network, 48, 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Xie, Yu, & Shauman, K. (1998). Sex differences in research productivity: new evidence about an old puzzle. American Sociological Review, 63, 847–870.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elizabeth Monk-Turner.

Additional information

We restricted our definition of productivity to number of articles published. We asked respondents about the number of books published and ran separate regressions with book productivity as the dependent variable. These results mirror those for article production. Given our sample size, and the fact that our numbers for book production were small, we focus, as others have, on article productivity. Clearly, this is a crude measure of productivity. We do not distinguish differences in whether or not articles are single or co-authored or quality of the journal where the article appears.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Monk-Turner, E., Fogerty, R. Chilly Environments, Stratification, and Productivity Differences. Am Soc 41, 3–18 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12108-009-9083-0

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12108-009-9083-0

Keywords

Navigation