Comparing Different Sources of Data to Examine Trends of Hate Crime in Absence of Official Registers

Abstract

Whether hate crime against minority groups increases or decreases over time underpins important theoretical and policy questions. However, the ability to capture trends is limited due to a dearth of data and measurement problems, especially in countries where there is no official register of hate crime. Using Chile as a case study, we compare longitudinal data from victimization surveys, registers of community organizations and mainstream media reports. The results allow us to discuss opportunities and limitations of triangulating different data sources to capture trends of hate crime. Our study results show a general increase in trends of hate crimes in Chile between 2015 and 2019, but important differences between data sources and victim groups (we consider LGBTI, migrant and Indigenous victims). We propose that the qualitative difference in the size of variation across different sources is explained by different biases of the data, which we review. This article illustrates the importance of disaggregating hate crimes because trends, correlates and key predictors often differ depending on the type of hate crime and the source of data.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Antjoule, N. (2016). The hate crime report 2016: Homophobia, biphobia and transphobia in UK. Galop. Retrieved from https://www.galop.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/The-Hate-Crime-Report-2016.pdf.

  2. Anti-Defamation League, ADL (2020). Letter to President Sebastian Piñera Echenique of Chile. Retrieved from https://www.adl.org/news/letters/letter-to-president-sebastian-pinera-echenique-of-chile.

  3. Aravena, A., & Álvarez, C. (2012). Juventud, migración y discriminación en el Chile contemporáneo [Youth migration and discrimination in contemporary Chile]. Última década, 20(36), 127–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Barrientos, J., & Bozon, M. (2014). Discrimination and victimization against gay men and lesbians in Chile: Two patterns or just one? Interdisciplinaria, 31(2), 323–339.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Barrientos, J., Silva, J., Catalan, S., Gomez, F., & Loguieira, J. (2010). Discrimination and victimization: Parade for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) pride, in Chile. Journal of Homosexuality, 57(6), 760–775.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Behlendorf, B., Belur, J., & Kumar, S. (2016). Peering through the kaleidoscope: Variation and validity in data collection on terrorist attacks. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 39(7–8), 641–667.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bushman, B., & Baumeister, R. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-Esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1, 219–229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Cárdenas, M., Barrientos, J., Gómez, F., & Frías-Navarro, D. (2012). Attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and their relationship with gender role beliefs in a sample of Chilean university students. International Journal of Sexual Health, 24, 226–236. https://doi.org/10.1080/19317611.2012.700687.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Chakraborti, N., & Hardy, S. J. (2015). LGB&T hate crime reporting: Identifying barriers and solutions. Retrieved from https://www.tandis.odihr.pl/bitstream/20.500.12389/22287/1/08623.pdf.

  10. CERC-Participa. (1999-2001). Encuesta: La discriminación a los mapuches [Survey of discrimination against Mapuches]. Santiago: Government of Chile.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Chermak, S. (2002). Searching for a demon: The media construction of the militia movement. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Chermak, S. M., Freilich, J. D., Parkin, W., & Lynch, J. P. (2012). American terrorism and extremist crime data sources and selectivity bias: An investigation focusing on homicide events committed by far-right extremists. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 28(1), 191–218.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Cubukcu, S., & Forst, B. (2018). Measuring terrorism. Homicide Studies, 22(1), 94–116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Díaz de Valdés j, J. M. (2017). Cuatro años de la Ley Zamudio: análisis crítico de su jurisprudencia [Four years of the Zamudio law: Critical analysis of its jurisprudence]. Estudios Constitucionales, 15(2), 447–488.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Esparza, E. (2019). Algunas reflexiones críticas sobre el derecho a la igualdad como no discriminación en Chile [Critical reflections about equality as non discrimination in Chile]. Cuestiones Constitucionales, 40, 3–37.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Feldman, S. (2003). Enforcing social conformity: A theory of authoritarianism. Political Psychology, 24(1), 41–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Feldman, S. (2013). Comments on: Authoritarianism in social context: The role of threat. International Journal of Psychology, 48(1), 55–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Freilich, J. D., Chermak, S. M., Belli, R., Gruenewald, J., & Parkin, W. S. (2014). Introducing the United States extremist crime database (ECDB). Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(2), 372–384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Gemignani, M., & Hernandez-Albujar, Y. (2015). Hate groups targeting unauthorized immigrants: Discourses, narratives and subjectivation practices on their websites. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(15), 2754–2770.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Gerstenfeld, P. B., & Grant, D. (2004). Crimes of hate. Selected readings. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Gladfelter, A. S., Lantz, B., & Ruback, R. B. (2015). The complexity of hate crime and bias activity: Variation across contexts and types of bias. Justice Quarterly, 34(1), 55–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. González, R., Sirlopú, D., & Kessler, T. (2010). Prejudice among Peruvians and Chileans as a function of identity, intergroup contact, acculturation preferences, and intergroup emotions. Journal of Social Issues, 66, 803–824. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2010.01676.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Green, D. P., McFalls, L. H., & Smith, J. K. (2001). Hate crime: An emergent research agenda. Annual Review of Sociology, 27(1), 479–504.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Greenberg, J., Arrndt, J., Schimel, J., Pyszczynski, T., & Sheldon, S. (2001). Clarifying the function of mortality salience-induced worldview defense: Renewed suppression or reduced accessibility of death-related thoughts? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37(1), 70–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Herek, G. M., Gillis, J. R., Cogan, J. C., & Glunt, E. K. (1997). Hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults: Prevalence, psychological correlates, and methodological issues. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12(2), 195–215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Huddy, L., Feldman, S., Taber, C., & Lahav, G. (2005). Threat, anxiety, and support of antiterrorism policies. American Journal of Political Science, 49(3), 593–608. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2005.00144.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Ignaski, P., & Lagou, S. (2015). Hate crimes hurt some more than others: Implications for the just sentencing of offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(10), 1696–1718.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Inglehart, R., Haerpfer, C., Moreno, A., Welzel, C., Kizilova, K., Diez-Medrano, J., Lagos, M., Norris, P., Ponarin, E., Puranen, B., et al. (Eds.). (2014). World values survey: Round six - country-pooled datafile 2010–2014. Madrid: JD Systems Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Kaplan, J. (1997). Radical religion in America: Millenarian movements from the far right to the children of Noah. NY: Syracuse University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Lyons, C. G. (2008). Defending turf: Racial demographics and hate crime against blacks and whites. Social Forces, 87(1), 357–385.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Merino, M. E., Mellor, D.J., Saiz, J.L. & Quilaqueo, D. (2009). Perceived discrimination amongst the indigenous Mapuche people in Chile: Somecomparisons with Australia. Ethnic and Racial Studies 32, 5: 802–822. https://doi.org/10.1080/014198708020372667

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Moses, D. (2019). “White genocide” and the ethics of public analysis. Journal of Genocide Research., 21, 201–213. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623528.2019.1599493.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Pyszczynski, T., Abdolhossein, A., Sheldon, S., Greenberg, J., Cohen, F., & Weise, D. (2006). Mortality salience, martyrdom, and military might: The great Satan versus the Axis of evil. Personality and Social Psychology Bullettin, 32(4), 525–537. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167205282157. 

  34. Reijntjes, A., Kamphuis, J. H., Prinzie, P., & Telch, M. J. (2010). Peer victimization and internalizing problems in children: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(4), 244–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.07.009.

  35. Salinero, S. (2013). La nueva agravante penal de discriminación: Los “delitos de odio” [The new aggravating circumstance of discrimination: "Hate crimes"]. Revista de Derecho (Valparaíso), 41, 263–308.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Saucier, D. A., Brown, T. L., Mitchell, R. C., & Cawman, A. J. (2006). Effects of Victims’ characteristics on attitudes toward hate crimes. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(7), 890–909.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Schulenberg, S. (2019). LGBT rights in Chile: On the verge of a gay-rights revolution? Sexuality, Gender & Policy, 2(2), 97–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Solar, T. V. (2013). La nueva ley Antidiscriminación: Propuestas Para avanzar en su perfeccionamiento [The new anti-discrimination law: Proposals to advance its improvement]. Anuario de Derechos Humanos, 9, 183–191.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Stacey, M., Carbone-Lopez, K., & Rosenfeld, R. (2011). Demographic change and ethnically motivated crime: The impact of immigration on anti-Hispanic hate crime in the United States. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 27(3), 278–298.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Brooks/Cole: Monterey, CA.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Turner, J. C., Brown, R., & Tajfel, H. (1979). Social comparison and group interest in ingroup favouritism. European Journal of Social Psychology, 9(2), 187–204. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420090207.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Uhlmann, E., Dasgupta, N., Elgueta, A., Greenwald, A. G., & Swanson, J. (2002). Subgroup prejudice based on skin color among Hispanics in the United States and Latin America. Social Cognition, 20(3), 198–226. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.20.3.198.21104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Vergani, M. (2018). How is terrorism changing us? Threat perception and political attitudes in the age of terror. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Walsh, S. (2015). “One of the Most uniform races of the entire world”: Creole eugenics and the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity. Journal of the History of Biology, 48(4), 613–639. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10739-015-9403-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Wickes, R., Sydesm, M., Benier, K., & Higginson, A. (2017). “Seeing” hate crime in the community: Do resident perceptions of hate crime align with self-reported victimization? Crime & Delinquency, 63(7), 875–889.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Aymerich, J., Manuel C., & Vivanco, M. (2007). Encuesta tolerancia y no discriminación tercera medición. [Third national survey on tolerance and not discrimination]. Santiago, Chile: Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Departamento de Sociología Universidad de Chile. https://www.facso.uchile.cl%2Fdocumentos%2Fencuesta-tolerancia-y-no-discriminacion-tercera-medicion-pdf-5207-kb_56703_5.pdf&usg=AOvVaw1_pFrjpfzTdKKBukO5FveK

  47. Berrill, K., & Herek, G. M. (Eds.). (1991). Hate crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men. Sage Publications.

  48. CEP. (2017). Estudio nacional de opinión pública [National public opinion study]. Santiago, Chile: Centro de Estudios Público (CEP). https://www.cepchile.cl/estudio-nacional-de-opinion-publica-septiembre-octubre-2017/cep/2017-10-25/105022.html

  49. CIIR. (2017). Estudio longitudinal de relaciones culturales. Resultados primera ola [Longitudinal study of cultural relations. First wave results]. Santiago, Chile: Centro de Estudios Interculturales e Indígenas. http://www.elri.cl/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/ResultadosPrimeraOla.pdf

  50. COES. (2017). Estudio longitudinal social de Chile (ELSOC). Resultados primera ola [Longitudinal social study of Chile, ELSOC. First wave results]. Santiago, Chile: Centre for Social Conflict and Cohesion Studies. http://www.coes.cl/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/N5_Resultados-Primera-Ola-ELSOC-Mod2_Conflicto-Social.pdf

  51. Corporación Humanas (2015). Alternative report submitted to the UN Committee on the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights for the consideration of the fourth Report of the Republic of Chile during the 55th session. Retrieved from https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CESCR/Shared%20Documents/CHL/INT_CESCR_CSS_CHL_20163_E.pdf.

  52. DEM (2019). Estimación de personas extranjeras residentes en Chile [Estimation of foreign persons resident in Chile]. Report. Departamento de Extranjería y Migración, Gobierno de Chile. https://www.extranjeria.gob.cl/media/2019/02/Presentación-Extranjeros-Residentes-en-Chile.-31-Diciembre-2018.pdf

  53. Fernandez, A. (2020). Crímenes de odio a personas LGBTI se duplicaron en Chile [Hate crimes against LGBTI people doubled in Chile]. Available at: https://agenciapresentes.org/2020/01/27/crimenes-de-odio-a-personas-lgbti-se-duplicaron-en-chile/

  54. FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights). (2018). Hate crime recording and data collection practice across the EU. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-9474-063-2.

  55. Freilich, J. D. & Chermak, S.D. (2013). Hate crimes. Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. US Department of Justice. ISBN: 978-1-932582-78-9.

  56. Fundación Ideas and Universidad de Chile. (1997). Primera encuesta sobre intolerancia y discriminación: Informe y análisis [First national survey on intolerance and discrimination: Report and analysis]. Santiago, Chile: Authors.

  57. Fundación Ideas and Universidad de Chile. (2002). Segunda encuesta sobre intolerancia y discriminación: Informe y análisis [Second national survey on intolerance and discrimination: Report and analysis]. Santiago, Chile: Authors. http://mastor.cl/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Encuesta-Discriminacion-Intolerancia-II.-Encuesta.-Ideas-Uchile-2002.pdf

  58. Home Office. (2018). Hate crime, England and Wales. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/748598/hate-crime-1718-hosb2018.pdf

  59. INDH. (2017). Informe sobre la situación de los derechos humanos en Chile [Report on the situation of human rights in Chile]. Santiago, Chile: Instituto Nacional de Derechos Humanos. https://www.indh.cl/destacados-2/informe-anual/

  60. IOM. (2018). World migration report. https://www.iom.int/wmr/world-migration-report-2018

  61. Lynch, J.P. & Addington, L.A. (co-editors) (2007). Understanding crime statistics: Revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and the UCR. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

  62. McGregor, HA., Lieberman, JD., Greenberg, J., Sheldon, S., Arndt, J., Simon, L., & Pyszczynski, T. (1998). Terror management and aggression: evidence that mortality salience motivates aggression against worldview-threatening others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(3),  590–605.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.74.3.590.

  63. Movilh. (2018). XVI Informe anual de derechos humanos de la diversidad sexual en Chile, hechos 2017. Historia anual de las minorías sexuales chilenas [XVI Annual report on human rights of sexual diversity in Chile, facts 2017. Annual history of Chilean sexual minorities]. Santiago, Chile: Santiago, Chile: Movimiento de Integración y Liberación Homosexual. http://www.movilh.cl/documentacion/2018/Informe-DDHH-2017-Movilh.pdf

  64. Muñoz, F. (2015). Estándares conceptuales y cargas procesales en el litigio antidiscriminación. Análisis crítico de la jurisprudencia sobre ley Zamudio entre 2012 y 2015 [conceptual standards and procedural burdens in antidiscrimination litigation. Critical analysis of case law on the Zamudio act between 2012 and 2015]. Revista de Derecho (Valdivia), 28(2), 14–167.

  65. Muñoz, F. (2019). Towards a conceptual history of discrimination. Presentation at the workshop “law and diversity”. Max Planck Institute for European Legal History.

  66. Paredes, S. (2019). Shades of hate: Representations around homosexuality in chilean church and parliamentary discourse (2005–2015). Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University).

  67. Peel, E. (1999). I. Violence against lesbians and gay men: decision-making in reporting and not reporting crime. Feminism & Psychology, 9(2), 161–167.

  68. Rizvi, J. (2019). Searching for solutions to violence and hate in Australian society. The Conversation. https://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/books/searching-for-solutions-to-violence-and-hate-in-australian-society-20190417-p51f2x.html

  69. Stephan, W., Diaz-Loving, R., & Duran, A. (2000). Integrated threat theory and intercultural attitudes. Mexico and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31(2), 240–249. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022100031002006.

  70. Tijoux, M. E. (2016). Racismo en Chile: la piel Como marca de la inmigración [Racism in Chile: The skin as a mark of immigration]. Editorial Universitaria de Chile.

  71. Torres, F., Salgado, M., Mackenna, B. & Núñez, J. (2018). Those who differentiate by skin tones are at the top: Status attributions and skin pigmentation in Chile. Doctoral dissertation, Universidad de Chile.

  72. UN Human Rights Office. (2015). Concluding observations on the fourth periodic report of Chile. Retrieved from https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E/C.12/CHL/CO/4&Lang=En

  73. Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, UNPO (2013). Alternative report submitted to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination for the consideration of the 19th to 21st Report of the Republic of Chile during the 83rd session. Retrieved from https://unpo.org/article/16270.

  74. US Department of Justice. (2019). Hate Crime Statistics. Available at: https://www.justice.gov/hatecrimes/hate-crime-statistics

  75. Véjar, J. (2015). La huelga de hambre mapuche: Una mirada crítica a los síntomas del Estado chileno En memoria de Matías Catrileo [The mapuche hunger strike: A critique view into the symptoms of the chilean state]. Polis (Santiago), 14(42), 119–141. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-65682015000300007

  76. Wadi, R. (2018) Mapuche murders not just a right-wing issue, Available at: https://www.eurekastreet.com.au/article/mapuche-murders-not-just-a-right-wing-issue

  77. Youkee, M. (2018). Indigenous Chileans defend their land against loggers with radical tactics. The Guardian, Retrieved at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jun/14/chile-mapuche-indigenous-arson-radical-environmental-protest

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Matteo Vergani.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Vergani, M., Navarro, C., Freilich, J.D. et al. Comparing Different Sources of Data to Examine Trends of Hate Crime in Absence of Official Registers. Am J Crim Just (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12103-020-09567-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Hate crime
  • Hate incidents
  • Hate measurement
  • Chile