Abramovich, E. (2005). Childhood sexual abuse as a risk factor for subsequent involvement in Sex work. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 17(1–2), 131–146.
Azaola, E. (2000). Boy and girl victims of commercial sexual exploitation in Mexico. Mexico: UNICEF-DIF.
Bell, H., & Todd, C. (1998). Juvenile prostitution in a midsize City. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 27(3/4), 93–105.
Booth, R. E., Zhang, Y., & Kwiatkowski, C. F. (1999). The challenge of changing drug and Sex risk behaviors of runaway and homeless adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(12), 1295–1306.
Brawn, K. M., & Roe-Sepowitz, D. (2008). Female juvenile prostitutes: Exploring the relationship to substance use. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 1395–1402.
Clarke, R. J., Clarke, E. A., Roe-Sepowitz, D., & Fey, R. (2012). Age at entry into prostitution: Relationship to drug use, race, suicide, education level, childhood abuse, and family experiences. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 22(3), 270–289.
Cobbina, J. E., & Oselin, S. S. (2011). It’s Not only for the money: An analysis of adolescent versus adult entry into street prostitution. Sociological Inquiry, 81(3), 310–332.
Cole, J., Sprang, G., Lee, R., & Cohen, J. (2014). The Trauma of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Youth: A Comparison of CSE Victims to Sexual Abuse Victims in a Clinical Setting. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1–25.
Edwards, J. M., Iritani, B. J., & Hallfors, D. D. (2006). Prevalence and correlates of exchanging Sex for drugs or money among adolescents in the United States. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 82(5), 354–358.
Estes, R. J., & Weiner, N. A. (2001). The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the US, Canada and Mexico. University of Pennsylvania, School of Social Work, Center of the Study of Youth Policy.
Flowers, R. B. (1998). The Prostitution of Women and Girls. McFarland.
Flowers, B. R. (2001). Runaway Kids and Teenage Prostitution: America’s Lost, Abandoned, and Sexually Exploited Children (No. 54). Greenwood Publishing Group.
Gardner, W., Mulvey, E. P., & Shaw, E. C. (1995). Regression analyses of counts and rates: Poisson, overdispersed Poisson, and negative binomial models. Psychological Bulletin, 118(3), 392–404.
Gault-Sherman, M. (2012). It’s a Two-way street: The bidirectional relationship between parenting and delinquency. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 121–145.
Greene, J. M., Ennett, S. T., & Ringwalt, C. L. (1999). Prevalence and correlates of survival Sex among runaway and homeless youth. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 1406–1409.
Halcon, L. L., & Lifson, A. R. (2004). Prevalence and predictors of sexual risks among homeless youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(1), 71–80.
Harris, K. M. (2013). The Add Health Study: Design and Accomplishments. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Jordan, L. C., & Lewis, M. L. (2005). Paternal relationship quality as a protective factor: Preventing alcohol Use among African american adolescents. Journal of Black Psychology, 31(2), 152–171.
Kaestle, C. E. (2012). Selling and buying Sex: A longitudinal study of risk and protective factors in adolescence. Prevention Science, 13(3), 314–322.
Kempf-Leonard, K., & Johansson, P. (2007). Gender and Runaways: Risk factors, delinquency, and juvenile justice experiences. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 5(3), 308–327.
Kidd, S. A., & Kral, M. J. (2002). Suicide and prostitution among street youth: A qualitative analysis. Adolescence, 37(146), 411.
Kramer, L. A., & Berg, E. C. (2003). A survival analysis of timing of entry into prostitution: The differential impact of race, educational level, and childhood/adolescent risk factors. Sociological Inquiry, 73(4), 511–528.
Lavoie, F., Thibodeau, C., Gagne, M.-H., & Herbert, M. (2010). Buying and selling Sex in Quebec adolescents: A study of risk and protective factors. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(5), 1147–1160.
Lloyd, R. (2005). Acceptable victims? sexually exploited youth in the US. Encounter: Education for Meaning and Social Justice, 18(3), 6–17.
Lukman, Z. M., Nasir, R., Fauziah, I., Sarnon, N., Chong, S. T., Kamal, M. M., . . . Rusyda, H. M. (2011). The Relationship Between Dyfunctional Family and the Involvement of Children in Prostitution. World Applied Sciences Journal 12, 7–12.
Lung, F.-W., Lin, T.-J., Lu, Y.-C., & Shu, B.-C. (2004). Personal characteristics of adolescent prostitutes and rearing attitudes of their parents: A structural equation model. Psychiatry Research, 125, 285–291.
Maxwell, S. R., & Maxwell, C. D. (2000). Examining the “criminal careers” of prostitutes within the nexus of drug Use, drug selling, and other illicit activities. Criminology, 38(3), 787–810.
Menning, C. L. (2006). Nonresidental fathering and school failure. Journal of Family Issues, 27(10), 1356–1382.
Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., & Wolak, J. (2010). Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: Findings from the national juvenile prostitution study. Child Maltreatment, 15(1), 18–36.
Nadon, S. M., Koverola, C., & Schludermann, E. H. (1998). Antecedents to prostitution: Childhood victimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1(2), 206–221.
Potter, K., Martin, J., & Romans, S. (1999). Early developmental experiences of female Sex workers: A comparative study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33(6), 935–940.
Reid, J. A. (2011). An exploratory model of Girl’s vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation in prostitution. Child Maltreatment, 16(2), 146–157.
Reid, J. A. (2012). Exploratory review of route-specific, gendered, and Age-graded dynamics of exploitation: Applying life course theory to victimization in Sex trafficking in North America. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 257–271.
Reid, J. A., & Jones, S. (2011). Exploited vulnerability: Legal and psychological perspectives on child Sex trafficking victims. Victims and Offenders, 6, 207–231.
Reid, J. A., & Piquero, A. R. (2013). Age-Graded Risks for Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Male and Female Youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1–31.
Reid, J. A., & Piquero, A. R. (2014). On the relationships between commercial sexual exploitation/prostitution, substance dependency, and delinquency in youthful offenders. Child Maltreatment, 19, 1–14.
Romesburg, D. (2009). “Wouldn’t a Boy Do?” placing early-twentieth-century male youth Sex work into histories of sexuality. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 18(3), 367–392.
Rosenblatt, K. (2014). Determining the vulnerability factors, lures, and recruitment methods used to entrap american children into Sex trafficking. Sociology and Criminology, 2(1), 1–15.
Saewyc, E. M., Drozda, C., Rivers, R., MacKay, L., & Peled, M. (2013). Which comes first: Sexual exploitation or other risk exposures among street-involved youth? In S. Gaetz, J. Karabanow, & W. O’Grady (Eds.), Youth homeless in Canada: Implications for policy and practice (pp. 147–160). Toronto: Canadian Homelessness Research Network Press.
Schauer, E. J., & Wheaton, E. M. (2006). Sex trafficking into the United States: A literature review. Criminal Justice Review, 31(2), 146–169.
Scott, J. (2003). A Prostitute’s progress: Male prostitution in scientific discourse. Social Semiotics, 13(2), 179–199.
Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, 22 U.S.C. §7105 (b) (1) (E) (u) (2000)
Tyler, K., & Johnson, K. (2006). Trading Sex: Voluntary or coerced? the experiences of homeless youth. Journal of Sex Research, 43(3), 208–216.
Tyler, K., Whitbeck, L. B., Hoyt, D. R., & Cauce, A. M. (2004). Risk factors for sexual victimization among male and female homeless and runaway youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19(5), 503–520.
Walker, K. E. (2002). Exploitation of children and young people through prostitution. Journal of Child Health Care, 6(3), 182–188.
Weber, A. E., Boivin, J. F., Blais, L., Haley, N., & Roy, E. (2004). Predictors of initiation into prostitution among female street youth. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 81(4), 584–595.
Williamson, C., & Prior, M. (2009). Domestic minor Sex trafficking: A network of underground players in the Midwest. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 2, 46–61.
Willis, B. M., & Levy, B. S. (2002). Child prostitution: Global health burden, research needs, and interventions. The Lancet, 359(9315), 1417–1422.
Wilson, H. W., & Widom, C. S. (2010). The role of youth problem behaviors in the path from child abuse and neglect to prostitution: A prospective examination. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(1), 210–236.