Researching Professionals or Professional Researchers? A Comparison of Professional Doctorate and PhD Programs in Criminology & Criminal Justice
- 330 Downloads
There are many questions asked by people who are thinking of entering a PhD program in criminology or criminal justice (CCJ). In addition to standard questions about completion time and assistantships, working professionals sometimes ask questions unique to them, such as whether a PhD will help them to obtain positions as upper-level administrators in law enforcement or why is it necessary to learn research skills. These questions take on added significance today because of the emergence of “professional doctorate programs.” This paper examines differences between professional doctorate and PhD programs in CCJ, with special emphasis on differences in research training and practical experience. This examination suggests that unlike other disciplines, the professional doctorate in CCJ is seen as a complementary degree to the PhD, designed to attract working professionals in the field to higher education, rather than as a competing degree as in other disciplines.
KeywordsCriminal justice education Doctoral education Professional doctorates PhD alternatives
- Association of Doctoral Programs in Criminology and Criminal Justice (ADPCCJ). (n.d.). Membership directory. Retrieved from http://www.adpccj.com/members.html.
- Baker, A. (2003). Faculty development for teaching online: educational and technological issues. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 34(6), 273–278.Google Scholar
- Cao, Y., Park, J. S., & Honda, H. (2008). The two worlds of adult MBA education: Online v. traditional courses in student background and performance. Paper presented at the Adult Higher Education Alliance Conference, Saratoga Springs, NY. Retrieved from http://ahea.org/files/pro2010cao.pdf.
- Capella University. (n.d.). Online PhD in criminal justice degree program: Courses. Retrieved from http://www.capella.edu/online-degrees/phd-criminal-justice/courses.
- Carter, D., Sapp, A., & Stevens, D. (1989). The state of education policy direction for the 21st century. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.Google Scholar
- Dabbagh, N., & NannaRitland, B. (2005). Online learning: concepts, strategies and application. New Jersey, NJ: Upper Saddle River.Google Scholar
- Fink, D. (2006). The professional doctorate: its relativity to the PhD and relevance for the knowledge economy. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 1, 35–44.Google Scholar
- Henley-Putnam University. (n.d.a). Doctorate in strategic security: Core requirements. Retrieved from http://www.henley-putnam.edu/programs/doctoral/strategic-security.aspx.
- Henley-Putnam University. (n.d.b). HUMINT Faculty. Retrieved from http://www.henley-putnam.edu/military/faculty.aspx.
- Heuer, B. P., & King, K. P. (2004). Leading the band: the role of the instructor in online learning for educators. The Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 3(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
- Katz, J., & Hartnett, R. T. (1976). Scholars in the making: the development of graduate and professional studies. Cambridge: Ballinger.Google Scholar
- Keengwe, J., & Kidd, T.T. (2010). Towards best practices in online learning and teaching in higher education. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(2). Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol6no2/keengwe_0610.htm.
- National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics. (2010). Doctorate recipients from U.S. Universities: 2009 (Special Report NSF 11-306). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf11306/.
- Noble, K. A. (1994). Changing doctoral degrees: an international perspective. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
- Northcentral University. (n.d.). Criminal justice specialization: Doctor of business administration. Retrieved from http://www.ncu.edu/northcentral-programs/specializations/BUS/dba/criminal-justice.
- Park, C. (2007). Redefining the doctorate. Retrieved from The Higher Education Academy website: http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/research/redefining_the_doctorate.pdf.
- Ries, P., & Thurgood, D. (1993). Summary report 1991: doctoral recipients from United States universities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Simpson, O. (2012). Supporting students in online, open, & distance learning (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Taylor, A. (2007). Learning to become researching professionals: the case of the doctorate of education. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 19(2), 154–166.Google Scholar
- Texas Southern University. (n.d.). TSU AJ brochure. Retrieved from http://www.tsu.edu/PDFFiles/academics/public/programs/TSU%20AJ%20Brochure.pdf.
- U.S. Department of Education. (2008a). Structure of U.S. education: First professional degrees. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-structure-us.html.
- U.S. Department of Education. (2008b). Structure of U.S. education: Research doctorate degrees. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-structure-us.html.
- U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development. (2010). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://eprints.cpkn.ca/7/1/finalreport.pdf.
- University of South Florida. (n.d.). Criminology: USF’s College of Behavioral & Community Sciences. Retrieved from http://criminology.cbcs.usf.edu/.
- University of the Rockies. (n.d.). Doctor of psychology, criminology and justice studies: Courses. Retrieved from http://www.rockies.edu/psydcriminology-courses.htm.
- Wellington, J., & Sikes, P. (2006). ‘A doctorate in a tight compartment’: why do students choose a professional doctorate and what impact does it have on their personal and professional lives? Studies in Higher Education, 31(6), 723–734.Google Scholar
- Winfield, G. (1987). The social science PhD: the ESRC inquiry on submission rates. London: Economic and Social Research Council.Google Scholar