Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in the Prevention of Recurrent Pneumonia in Under-Five Children

  • Neha SinghEmail author
  • Dnyanesh KambleEmail author
  • N. S. Mahantshetti
Original Article



To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of recurrent pneumonia in under-five children.


The present one year 8 months longitudinal, community-based randomized controlled study included a total of 100 under-five children with pneumonia. Children were divided into two groups: intervention group (Group I: standard treatment with vitamin D 300,000 IU; n = 50) and control group (Group C: standard treatment only; n = 50). As nine samples were hemolyzed, groups I and C comprised of 46 and 45 children, respectively. The children were followed up for 1 y and signs of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), vitamin D deficiency, and vitamin D toxicity were recorded.


The male to female ratio in group C and I was 1.27:1 and 1.5:1, respectively (P = 0.420). Age, gender, birth, anthropometric and clinical characteristics, and feeding habits were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) between both the cohorts (Group C and I). Children with reduced vitamin D levels were high in group C (25) when compared to the group I (15). During all the follow-ups, the URTI and LRTI episodes, severity of pneumonia, number of hospital admissions, complications, mean episodes of LRTI, and mean duration of LRTI were comparable between group I and group C (P > 0.05).


Overall, the present study highlights that oral vitamin D (300,000 IU bolus dose quarterly) has some beneficial effect in the prevention of recurrent pneumonia in under-five children, although, not to a significant degree. Hence, it is recommended that further studies are required to demonstrate a significant effect of vitamin D in the prevention of pneumonia.


Lower respiratory tract infections Recurrent pneumonia Upper respiratory tract infections Vitamin D Under-five children 


Authors’ Contribution

NS, DK, and NSM: Conceptualized the study; NS: Collected the data, literature search, and developed the manuscript; DK and NS: Analysis of data and literature search; DK and NSM: Overall supervision and intellectual input in final drafting. All authors contributed to the critical revision of the manuscript. DK is the guarantor for this article.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest



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Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsKAHER’S JN Medical College, Nehru NagarBelagaviIndia

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