The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 86, Issue 9, pp 777–783 | Cite as

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypovitaminosis-D in Children with Cognitive and Movement Disorders

  • Anu Susan George
  • M. C. Mathew
  • Anna MathewEmail author
  • Susan Sosa Jacob
  • John Michael Raj
Original Article



To document the prevalence of hypovitaminosis-D in children with intellectual and movement disorders and to identify the risk factors in vitamin D deficient children.


This is a cross-sectional study on 90 children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis-D and the risk factors such as sun exposure, age-appropriate mobility, diet, skin color and anti-epileptic medications were examined in children with cognitive disorders and movement disorders.


The mean serum vitamin D level in children with cognitive disability (n = 46) was found to be 26.7 ± 16.3 ng/L and in the children with movement disability (n = 44) it was 27.9 ± 10.5 ng/L. Though the risk factors were found in greater numbers in children in the deficient group (vitamin D < 30 ng/L), the difference between the two groups was not significant. Of the 90 children, 86 (95.5%) had at least one sign of vitamin D deficiency. Lowest levels of vitamin D were seen in autistic spectrum disorder and learning disabilities in the Cognitive Disability group and hemiplegia in the Movement Disability group.


The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities was 72.2%, with 76.1% in the cognitive disability group and 68.2% in the movement disability group. The risk factors were more common in vitamin D deficient children.


Hypovitaminosis-D Neuromuscular disability Cognitive disability Movement disability Vitamin D deficient Calcidiol 



The authors are grateful to the Short Term Studentship (STS) programme of the ICMR for giving medical students the opportunity to do a research project. They acknowledge the Dean, Management, Faculty and staff of Developmental Pediatrics and Child Neurology and the Research department of this institution for enabling this research study to be conducted.

Authors’ Contribution

ASG: Principal investigator, conducted the study and collected the data; MCM: Supervised clinical data collection and clinical aspects of the study; AM: Guide - oversaw the research methodology, helped in writing the protocol and report; SSJ: Helped in data collection and participant interviewing; JMR: Biostatistical analysis. AM is the guarantor for this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest


Source of Funding

This study was approved by the Short term studentship programme of the ICMR and the student received a grant from the ICMR.


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Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MOSC Medical CollegeKolencheryIndia
  2. 2.Department of Developmental Pediatrics and Child NeurologyMOSC Medical CollegeKolencheryIndia
  3. 3.Department of PharmacologyMOSC Medical CollegeErnakulamIndia
  4. 4.Department of BiostatisticsSt. John’s Medical CollegeBangaluruIndia

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