Diagnosis and Management of Acute Encephalitis in Children
Acute encephalitis is a common cause of death and neurodevelopmental problems in children. The causative agents are numerous including infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, mycobacteria and protozoa; para-infectious and immune mediated disorders such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and autoimmune encephalitis, especially the recently described anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Also, many viral associated encephalopathies such as acute necrotizing encephalopathy can mimic the presentation of acute encephalitis. In this article, authors describe the approach to the diagnosis and management of acute encephalitis in children.
KeywordsViral encephalitis Japanes B encephalitis ADEM Autoimmune encephalitis
SA and SS: Data acquisition, writing the draft, critical revision and approval of final draft to be submitted. SA will act as guarantor for this paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
- 1.Kneen R, Michael BD, Menson E, et al; National Encephalitis Guidelines Development and Stakeholder Groups. Management of suspected viral encephalitis in children - Association of British Neurologists and British Paediatric Allergy Immunology and Infection Group national guidelines. J Infect. 2012;64:449–77.Google Scholar
- 2.World Health Organisation. Acute encephalitis syndrome. Japanese encephalitis surveillance standards. January 2006. From WHO-recommended standards for surveillance of selected vaccine-preventable diseases. WHO/V&B/03.01. Available at: http://www.who.int/vaccines-documents/DocsPDF06/843.pdf. Accessed on 15th July 2018.
- 9.Shrivastava A, Kumar A, Thomas JD, et al. Association of acute toxic encephalopathy with litchi consumption in an outbreak in Muzaffarpur, India, 2014: a case-control study. Lancet Glob Health. 2017;5:e458–66.Google Scholar
- 12.Britton PN, Blyth CC, Macartney K, Dale RC, Li-Kim-Moy J, Khandaker G, et al. The spectrum and burden of influenza-associated neurological disease in children: combined encephalitis and influenza sentinel site surveillance from Australia, 2013-2015. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65:653–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Martinez-Torres F, Menon S, Pritsch M, et al; GACHE Investigators. Protocol for German trial of Acyclovir and corticosteroids in Herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis (GACHE): a multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled German, Austrian and Dutch trial [ISRCTN45122933]. BMC Neurol. 2008;8:40.Google Scholar