Goiter Prevalence and Interrelated Components from Coastal Karnataka
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To assess prevalence of goiter and associated factors among school going children in Udupi district.
A school based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 6–12 year old children. A sample of 30 villages was selected from the entire district by probability proportionate to size. One school was then randomly selected from each of the 30 villages. Goiter was assessed clinically and was graded as per the recommended criteria of World Health Organization (WHO)/ United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). Salt and urine samples were collected from a subsample for iodine estimation.
A total of 2703 children were examined. The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 9.6 y (±1.9). The overall prevalence of goiter in Udupi district was found to be 9.3% with 7.0% and 2.3% having grade 1 and grade 2 goiter respectively. Prevalence of goiter was significantly higher among females [153(11.1%)] as compared to males [98(7.4%)] (p = 0.001). Of the 543 salt samples analyzed, 379 (69.8%) salt samples had adequate salt iodine content (> 15 ppm); while among the children with goiter 32 (8.4%) had inadequate salt iodine. Median iodine value was 202.12 mcg/l among the 270 urine samples tested for iodine levels.
Goiter prevalence at 9.3% in the coastal district contributes to the endemicity of the public health problem. The district had adequate iodine nutrition based on median urinary iodine levels. Hence, other contributing factors for the persistence of endemic goiter need to be explored.
KeywordsGoiter School children Iodine deficiency Prevalence Urinary iodine
The authors would like to acknowledge the Government of Karnataka for funding the project, the children who participated in the study and the support extended by the schools in conducting the survey. They would also like to thank the MSWs and survey team members from the Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal for their support for the conduct of the study. They are thankful to the Biochemistry Department at Kasturba Medical College, Manipal for analysing the samples and providing timely results.
AS, CRR, AK planned and supervised the study. VSP, SKRT collected the data, reviewed the literature and prepared the draft manuscript. AS provided critical inputs into the final version of manuscript. CRR, AK, VSP, SKRT analyzed the data and critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. AS will act as guarantor of study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
“All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.” Institutional Ethical clearance was obtained from Ethics Committee (IEC) of Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (IEC: 922/2016). Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of Interest
Source of Funding
National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Karnataka.
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