Biomarkers for Diagnosing Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: Is that the Way Forward?
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Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important life-threatening complication in Intensive care unit (ICU) setting . It is associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation, hospital stay, increased treatment cost, and also attributable mortality. VAP is suspected using clinical criteria supported by investigations such as leukocyte counts and chest radiograph. Diagnosis of VAP in critically ill children is more difficult with non-specific clinical and radiological findings in presence of many concurrent cardiopulmonary factors (atelectasis, pulmonary hemorrhage, congestive heart failure, underlying pneumonia, etc.).
For microbiologic confirmation, bronchoalveolar lavage is the most feasible sample which can be obtained by bronchoscopy or by a blind non-bronchoscopic technique. The culture results take approximately 48–72 h. There is also a need to differentiate actual infection from bacterial colonization of lower airways that develops rapidly with endotracheal tube [
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