Tuberculosis Burden among Household Pediatric Contacts of Adult Tuberculosis Patients
- 139 Downloads
To find out the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and TB disease among pediatric household contacts of adult drug resistant (MDR) and drug susceptible (DS) TB patients and to identify the risk factors for occurrence of TB infection in the contacts.
Pediatric household contacts (less than 15 y age) of adult TB patients (both MDR and DS) were included in the study. They were categorized as latent TB infection (LTBI), TB disease and TB exposed based on the results of tuberculin skin testing (TST), clinical examination and chest X-ray. Various factors (age, gender, socioeconomic status, BCG immunization etc.) were evaluated to assess their association with TB transmission.
A total of 271 household contacts were included in the study. Prevalence of LTBI was 20.3% (31% in MDR TB group and 14% in DS TB group); difference was significant (p value = 0.0018). TB disease was seen in 3 subjects in DS group while none in MDR group developed TB disease. Lower socioeconomic status was significantly associated with risk of TB infection in MDR group (p value =0.0027). In DS TB group, male gender, BCG non-immunization was significantly associated with risk of developing TB (p value 0.0068 and 0.0167 respectively).
Prevalence of latent TB infection was found to be high in household pediatric contacts especially in contacts of MDR TB patients. Risk factors identified for occurrence of TB included lower socioeconomic status, BCG non-immunization and male gender. The study focuses on the importance of contact screening and the need for its implementation in TB control programs.
KeywordsHousehold contacts Latent TB Multidrug resistant Children TB disease
RD, RB, DA and BC helped in the design of the study and preparation of manuscript. BC, SK, SN and AG helped in collection of data. NKY contributed in data collection, analysis and writing of manuscript. All the authors approved the study. RB will act as guarantor for this paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Source of Funding
- 1.Global tuberculosis report: WHO report 2016. Available at: www.who.int/tb/publications/global report/gtbr 2016. Accessed on 15th July, 2017.
- 3.Updated National Guidelines for Pediatric Tuberculosis in India. Available at: http://www.tbcindia.nic.in/Pediatric/20guidelines-New:pdf. Accessed on 14th July, 2017.
- 4.Andrews RH, Devadatta S, Fox W, Radhakrishna S, Ramakrishnan CV, Velu S. Prevalence of tuberculosis among close family contacts of tuberculous patients in South India, and influence of segregation of the patient on early attack rate. Bull World Health Organ. 1960;23:463–510.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 7.Siminel M, Bungetzianu G, Anastasatu C. The risk of infection and diseases in contacts with patients excreting Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensitive and resistant to isoniazid. Bull Int Union Tuberc. 1979;54:263.Google Scholar
- 14.Elmi OS, Hasan H, Abdullah S, Jeab MZM. Zilfalil BA Naing NN. Prevalence and associated factors with transmission of latent tuberculosis among household contacts of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis patients in Malaysia. World J Med Sci. 2014;10:285-94.Google Scholar