Advertisement

Sleep Pattern of Adolescents in a School in Delhi, India: Impact on their Mood and Academic Performance

  • Ruchi Singh
  • Jagdish C. Suri
  • Renuka Sharma
  • Tejas Suri
  • Tulsi Adhikari
Original Article

Abstract

Objectives

To examine the sleep pattern and observe differences in sleep routines, phase preferences, mood, attendance, and academic performance among different adolescent age students. Secondly, to observe the age at which sleep phase transition and changes in sleep requirement become evident.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 501 students (aged 11–15 y) of a school in Delhi, India. Students were evaluated for their sleep patterns, sleep duration, habits of napping, quality of sleep, sleepiness, depression, phase preferences by self-reported school sleep habits survey questionnaire along with school performance and attendance.

Results

Significant differences were found in sleep pattern of students aged 11–12 y and 13–15 y. Bedtime shifted to a later time with increasing age but early morning schools kept the wake time same, leading to a decline in total sleep duration of older adolescents. Older adolescents had higher depression but poor attendance and academic performance. Prevalence of sleep deprivation increased with age, from 83.7% to 87.1% in 11–12 y to 90.5% to 92.5% in 13–15 y.

Conclusions

The study clearly identifies 12–13 y as age of transition of sleep pattern among adolescents. Though significant differences were found in the academic performance, mood and attendance among preteens and teens but no direct association was seen between academic performances and sleep pattern. A complex multifactorial association between sleep patterns, attendance, mood and academic performance which may change over days, months, or years should be explored further in a longitudinal follow up study.

Keywords

Sleep deprivation Depression Sleep Students Adolescents Mood School performance 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the school administration and all the students who participated in the study, which helped in smooth conduction of the survey. They also thank Dr. Shobha Das and Dr. Raj Kapoor for their constant support and encouragement that led them to the completion of the study. They would also like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Indian Sleep Disorder Association (ISDA) for this study.

Contributions

JCS and RS conceived the idea; JCS, RS and RenukaS designed the study; RS, RenukaS, TS, JCS and TA contributed for acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data. RS, JCS and TA contributed in analysis tools; RS and RenukaS drafted the paper and JCS, TS and TA substantively revised the paper. All authors gave approval for the submitted version. JCS will act as guarantor for this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

None.

Source of Funding

The authors would also like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Indian Sleep Disorder Association (ISDA) for this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Carskadon MA, Wolfson AR, Acebo C, Tzischinsky O, Seifer R. Adolescent sleep patterns, circadian timing, and sleepiness at a transition to early school days. Sleep. 1998;21:871–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    John B. Sleep-patterns, sleep hygiene behaviors and parental monitoring among Bahrain-based Indian adolescents. J Family Med Prim Care. 2015;4:232–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brand S, Kirov R. Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent somatic and psychiatric conditions. Int J Gen Med. 2011;4:425–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wolfson AR, Carskadon MA. Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents. Child Dev. 1998;69:875–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carskadon MA, Vieira C, Acebo C. Association between puberty and delayed phase preference. Sleep. 1993;16:258–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carskadon MA, Acebo C. Regulation of sleepiness in adolescents: update, insights and speculation. Sleep. 2002;25:606–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carskadon MA. Patterns of sleep and sleepiness in adolescents. Pediatrician. 1990;17:5–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hansen MI, Schiff A, Zee PC, Dubocovich ML. The impact of school daily schedule on adolescent sleep. Pediatrics. 2005;115:1555–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen T, Wu Z, Shen Z, Zhang J, Shen X, Li S. Sleep duration in Chinese adolescents: biological, environmental, and behavioral predictors. Sleep Med. 2014;15:1345–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Danner FW. Adolescent sleep and daytime functioning: a national study. Sleep. 2000;23:A199.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu X, Buysse DJ, Gentzler AL, et al. Insomnia and hypersomnia associated with depressive phenomenology and comorbidity in childhood depression. Sleep. 2007;30:83–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kjeldsen JS, Hjorth MF, Andersen R, et al. Short sleep duration and large variability in sleep duration are independently associated with dietary risk factors for obesity in Danish school children. Int J Obes (Lond.). 2014;38:32–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sivertsen B, Harvey AG, Pallesen S, Hysing M. Mental health problems in adolescents with delayed sleep phase: results from a large population-based study in Norway. J Sleep Res. 2015;24:11–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee YJ, Park J, Kim S, Cho SJ, Kim SJ. Academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015;11:61–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yang CK, Kim JK, Patel SR, Lee JH. Age-related changes in sleep/wake patterns among Korean teenagers. Pediatrics. 2005;115:250–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moore M, Meltzer LJ. The sleepy adolescent: causes and consequences of sleepiness in teens. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2008;9:114–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Acebo C, Carskadon MA. Influence of irregular sleep patterns on waking behavior. In: Carskadon MA, editor. Adolescent sleep patterns: biological, social, and psychological influences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2002. p. 220–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ficca G, Conte F, De Padova V, Zilli I. Good and bad sleep in childhood: a questionnaire survey amongst school children in southern Italy. Sleep Disord. 2011;2011:825981.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith CS, Reilly C, Midkiff K. Evaluation of three circadian rhythm questionnaires with suggestions for an improved measure of morningness. J Appl Psychol. 1989;74:728–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kandel DB, Davies M. Epidemiology of depressive mood in adolescents: an empirical study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982;39:1205–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Titova OE, Hogenkamp PS, Jacobsson JA, Feldman I, Schiöth HB, Benedict C. Associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and duration with academic failure in community-dwelling Swedish adolescents: sleep and academic performance at school. Sleep Med. 2015;16:87–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reid A, Maldonado CC, Baker FC. Sleep behavior of south African adolescents. Sleep. 2002;25:423–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Takemura T, Funaki K, Kanbayashi T, et al. Sleep habits of students attending elementary schools, and junior and senior high schools in Akita prefecture. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2002;56:241–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gibson ES, Powles AC, Thabane L, et al. “Sleepiness” is serious in adolescence: two surveys of 3235 Canadian students. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:116.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tikotzky L, Sadeh A. Sleep problems during adolescence: links with daytime functioning. In: Latzer Y, Tzischinsky O, editors. The dance of sleeping and eating in adolescents: normal and pathological perspective. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2012. p. 109–27.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Noland H, Price JH, Dake J, Telljohann SK. Adolescents' sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep. J Sch Health. 2009;79:224–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Curcio G, Ferrara M, De Gennaro L. Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10:323–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fredriksen K, Rhodes J, Reddy R, Way N. Sleepless in Chicago: tracking the effects of adolescent sleep loss during the middle school years. Child Dev. 2004;75:84–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    NSF (2006). 2006 Sleep in America Poll. Available at: http://www.sleepfoundation.org. Accessed on 3rd August 2016.
  30. 30.
    Johnson EO, Roth T, Breslau N. The association of insomnia with anxiety disorders and depression: exploration of the direction of risk. J Psychiatr Res. 2006;40:700-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruchi Singh
    • 1
  • Jagdish C. Suri
    • 2
  • Renuka Sharma
    • 1
  • Tejas Suri
    • 3
  • Tulsi Adhikari
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyVMMC and Safdarjung HospitalDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep MedicineSafdarjung HospitalNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of MedicineAll India Institute of Medical ScienceNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.National Institute of Medical Statistics (ICMR)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations