Sleep Pattern of Adolescents in a School in Delhi, India: Impact on their Mood and Academic Performance
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To examine the sleep pattern and observe differences in sleep routines, phase preferences, mood, attendance, and academic performance among different adolescent age students. Secondly, to observe the age at which sleep phase transition and changes in sleep requirement become evident.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 501 students (aged 11–15 y) of a school in Delhi, India. Students were evaluated for their sleep patterns, sleep duration, habits of napping, quality of sleep, sleepiness, depression, phase preferences by self-reported school sleep habits survey questionnaire along with school performance and attendance.
Significant differences were found in sleep pattern of students aged 11–12 y and 13–15 y. Bedtime shifted to a later time with increasing age but early morning schools kept the wake time same, leading to a decline in total sleep duration of older adolescents. Older adolescents had higher depression but poor attendance and academic performance. Prevalence of sleep deprivation increased with age, from 83.7% to 87.1% in 11–12 y to 90.5% to 92.5% in 13–15 y.
The study clearly identifies 12–13 y as age of transition of sleep pattern among adolescents. Though significant differences were found in the academic performance, mood and attendance among preteens and teens but no direct association was seen between academic performances and sleep pattern. A complex multifactorial association between sleep patterns, attendance, mood and academic performance which may change over days, months, or years should be explored further in a longitudinal follow up study.
KeywordsSleep deprivation Depression Sleep Students Adolescents Mood School performance
The authors thank the school administration and all the students who participated in the study, which helped in smooth conduction of the survey. They also thank Dr. Shobha Das and Dr. Raj Kapoor for their constant support and encouragement that led them to the completion of the study. They would also like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Indian Sleep Disorder Association (ISDA) for this study.
JCS and RS conceived the idea; JCS, RS and RenukaS designed the study; RS, RenukaS, TS, JCS and TA contributed for acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data. RS, JCS and TA contributed in analysis tools; RS and RenukaS drafted the paper and JCS, TS and TA substantively revised the paper. All authors gave approval for the submitted version. JCS will act as guarantor for this paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Source of Funding
The authors would also like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Indian Sleep Disorder Association (ISDA) for this study.
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