Pediatric Chest MRI: A Review
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Chest radiographs and CT scans have been the cornerstone of pulmonary imaging given their advantages of being rapid and easily available techniques. However, a significant concern with their use in the pediatric population is the associated ionisation radiation. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in pulmonary imaging has lagged behind its adoption in other organ systems. Previously, the lung parenchyma was considered difficult to evaluate by magnetic resonance due to low proton density in the pulmonary tissue, susceptibility artefacts within the lungs, and respiratory motion artefacts. However, in recent years, there have been a multitude of technical advancements to overcome these limitations. MRI can be an excellent radiation-free alternative in patients who require protracted follow-up like in cases such as cystic fibrosis, complicated pneumonias, tuberculosis and mediastinal neoplasms. An added advantage of MRI is that it can provide functional information in addition to the structural information provided by traditional imaging techniques. One of the major reasons of limited use of MRI despite its established utility is the lack of clarity regarding its indications, and a paucity of data on tailored MRI protocols customised to clinical needs. This article aims to review the basic MRI techniques, indications and terminologies used in chest imaging, with special emphasis on imaging findings of common pathologies in the pediatric population.
KeywordsMagnetic resonance imaging Pulmonary Pediatric Chest Radiation Pneumonia Lung
SK: Literature search, manuscript preparation; ASB: Concept, framework of the article and will act as guarantor for the paper; MJ: Concept and proof reading. ASB will act as guarantor for this paper.
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