The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 85, Issue 4, pp 300–306 | Cite as

Noise Pollution and Impact on Children Health

  • Alok Gupta
  • Anant Gupta
  • Khushbu Jain
  • Sweta Gupta
Review Article


With rapid urbanization and life style changes, loud noise is omnipresent and has become a part of life. Indoor and outdoor environmental noise pollution have been documented as a serious health hazard with increasing adverse effects on fetus, infants, children, adolescents and adults. Noise induced hearing loss and non-auditory adverse effects due to noise pollution, are being increasingly diagnosed in all age groups including the fetus. Outdated motorized vehicles, machinery, increasing traffic, congested residential areas, crowded educational institutions and workplaces, unregulated commercial and industrial noise have become a source of noise pollution with long-term disability. Areas of noise pollution must be identified and corrective measures be taken. Toys, personal, domestic, commercial, industrial equipment should be within the safe sound intensity. Loudspeakers and vehicular horns should be banned except in emergencies. Nocturnal noise pollution must be avoided near residential areas as sleep disturbances have serious long-term health consequences. Pregnant women, fetus, newborns, infants and children are most susceptible to noise induced health hazards and should be given utmost protection. Educational institutions, workplaces, commercial and industrial areas should be regularly monitored for noise levels and protective ear muffs and plugs be used. Public be educated repeatedly regarding health hazards of noise. Traffic noise should be regulated to be within safe limits. Bus-stands, railway stations and airports should be moved away from residential areas. Houses should be sound proofed suitably. Long term studies should be conducted in pregnant women, newborn children and adults to have more data on hazards of noise pollution.


Environment Noise pollution Hearing loss Health hazard 



Audio frequency


Hertz – frequency of sound waves


Decibel – unit of sound


Relative loudness of sound in air


Sound pressure


Noise induced hearing loss



AlokG, AnantG and KJ: Literature search and drafted the manuscript; AlokG and SG: critically reviewed the manuscript. AlokG will act as guarantor for this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest



  1. 1.
    Goines L, Hagler L. Noise pollution: a modem plague. South Med J. 2007;100:287–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Senate Public Works Committee. Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972. Washington, D.C., United States: United States Congress; 1972. Available at: Accessed 20 Sept 2017.
  3. 3.
    Hogan CM, Latshaw GL. The relationship between highway planning and urban noise. Proceedings of the ASCE, Urban Transportation. Chicago: By American Society of Civil Engineers. Urban Transportation Division; 1973.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alberti PW. The anatomy and physiology of the ear and hearing. Available at: Accessed 20 Sept 2017.
  5. 5.
    Yost WA. Handbook of Psychology, 2nd ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons; 2003. p. 130.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Martini A, Mazzoli M, Kimberling W. An introduction to the genetics of normal and defective hearing. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;830:361–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clark JG. Uses and abuses of hearing loss classification. ASHA. 1981;23:493–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buxton RT, McKenna MF, Mennitt D, et al. Noise pollution is pervasive in U.S. protected areas. Science. 2017;356:531–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rosen S, Olin P. Hearing loss and coronary heart disease. Arch Otolaryngol. 1965;82:236.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Monazzam MR, Karimi E, Abbaspour M, Nassiri P, Taghavi L. Spatial traffic noise pollution assessment - a case study. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2015;28:625–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andersen ZJ, Sram RJ, Ščasný M, et al. Newborns health in the Danube region: environment, biomonitoring, interventions and economic benefits in a large prospective birth cohort study. Environ Int. 2016;88:112–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pluhar ZF, Piko BF, Kovacs S, Uzzoli A. Air pollution is bad for my health: Hungarian children's knowledge of the role of environment in health and disease. Health Place. 2009;5:239–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thakur N, Batra P, Gupta P. Noise as a health hazard for children, time to make a noise about it. Indian Pediatr. 2016;53:111–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martin WH, Sobel J, Griest SE, Howarth L, Yongbing S. Noise induced hearing loss in children; preventing the silent epidemic. J Otol. 2006;1:11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Colorado Department of Transport. Noise analysis & abatement guidelines. Colorado: Department of Transportation Development; 2015. Available at: Accessed 28 Sept 2017.
  16. 16.
    Noise Induced Hearing Loss. Available at: Accessed 30 Sept 2017.
  17. 17.
    Bressane A, Mochizuki PS, Caram RM, Roveda JA. A system for evaluating the impact of noise pollution on the population's health. Cad Saude Publica. 2016;32:e00021215.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schafer AA, Domingues MR, Dahly DL, et al. Correlatesof self-reported weekday sleep duration in adolescents: the 18-year follow up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. Sleep Med. 2016;23:81–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stansfeld SA, Berglund B, Clark C, et al; RANCH study team. Aircraft and road traffic noise and children’s cognition and health: a cross-national study. Lancet. 2005;365:1942–9.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clark C, Crombie R, Head J, van Kamp I, van Kempen E, Stansfeld SA. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176:327–37.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tzivian L, Winkler A, Dlugaj M, et al. Effect of long-term outdoor air pollution and noise on cognitive and psychological functions in adults. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2015;218:1–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    White RD, Smith JA, Shepley MM. On behalf of the committee to establish recommended standards for newborn ICU design, recommended standards for newborn ICU design, eighth edition. J Perinatol. 2013;33:S2–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Audiometry Procedures Manual. Nhanes; January 2003. Available at: Accessed 30 Sept 2017.
  24. 24.
    Oishi N, Schacht J. Emerging treatments for noise-induced hearing loss. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2011;16:235–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Noise Induced Hearing Loss. Available at: Accessed 30 Sept 2017.
  26. 26.
    Mazlan R, Saim L, Thomas A, Said R, Liyab B. Ear infection and hearing loss amongst headphone users. Malays J Med Sci. 2002;9:17–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Huh A, Choi Y, Moon KW. The effects of earphone use and environmental lead exposure on hearing loss in the Korean population. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; 2016. p. 15–24.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lee PC, Senders CW, Gantz BJ, Otto SR. Transient sensorineural hearing loss after overuse of portable headphone cassette radios. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1985;93:622–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Naik K, Pai S. High frequency hearing loss in students used to ear phone music: a randomized trial of 1000 students. Indian J Otol. 2014;20:29–32.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Krug E, Cieza MA, Chadha S, et al. Noise induced hearing loss. Hearing Loss due to recreational exposure to loud sound, 1 ed. Geneva: WHO; 2014. p. 42–8.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Khaiwal R, Singh T, Tripathy JP, et al. Assessment of noise pollution in and around a sensitive zone in North India and its non-auditory impacts. Sci Total Environ. 2016;566-567:981–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vrijheid M, Casas M, Bergström A, et al. European birth cohorts for environmental health research. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:29–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gehring U, Tamburic L, Sbihi H, Davies HW, Brauer M. Impact of noise and air pollution on pregnancy outcomes. Epidemiology. 2014;25:351–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Halperin D. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: a threat to health? Sleep Sci. 2014;7:209–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Münzel T, Gori T, Babisch W, Basner M. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure. Eur Heart J. 2014;35:829–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pediatric Specialties Clinic, Mansarovar PolyclinicJaipurIndia
  2. 2.Department of GastroenterologySMS Medical CollegeJaipurIndia
  3. 3.Department of PathologyBhagwan Mahaveer Cancer Hospital & Research CenterJaipurIndia
  4. 4.Department of MicrobiologyMahatma Gandhi Medical College & HospitalJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations