The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 85, Issue 5, pp 344–350 | Cite as

Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Children (6–18 years) Residing in Kullu and Kangra Districts of Himachal Pradesh, India

  • Umesh Kapil
  • Ravindra Mohan Pandey
  • Brij Sharma
  • Lakshmy Ramakrishnan
  • Neetu Sharma
  • Gajendra Singh
  • Neha Sareen
Original Article



To assess the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and associated risk factors amongst children in the age group of 6–18 y residing at an altitude of 1000 mts and above.


A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2015–2016. Two districts (namely: Kangra and Kullu) of Himachal Pradesh state, India was selected for the present study. In each district thirty clusters/schools were identified using Population Proportionate to Size (PPS) sampling methodology. In the identified school, all the children in schools were enlisted. Twenty children per school were selected by using random number tables. A total of 1222 children (Kangra: 610; Kullu: 612) in the age group of 6–18 y were enrolled. The data on socio economic status, physical activity and sunlight exposure was collected. The blood samples were collected and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, phosphorous, albumin and alkaline phosphate were assessed using standard procedures.


Eighty one percent (Kangra) and 80.0% (Kullu) of school age children were found Vitamin D deficient as per serum 25(OH) D levels (less than 20 ng/ml).


A high prevalence of VDD was found in children residing in 2 districts located at high altitude regions of Himachal Pradesh, India.


Vitamin D deficiency Parathyroid hormone Children India 



UK: Concept, design, literature search, data acquisition, data analysis, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing and manuscript review; RMP: Concept, design, data analysis, statistical analysis and manuscript review; BS: Concept, design, data acquisition, manuscript editing and manuscript review; LR: Concept, design, literature search, data acquisition, data analysis, manuscript editing and manuscript review; NS: Literature search, data acquisition and manuscript review; GS: Literature search manuscript editing and manuscript review; NehaS: Literature search, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing and manuscript review. UK will act as guarantor for this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest


Source of Funding

The Project was supported by Department of Biotechnology, Government of India (vide letter no: BT/PR6701/FNS/20/674/2012) for providing us the financial grant for conducting this study.


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Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umesh Kapil
    • 1
  • Ravindra Mohan Pandey
    • 2
  • Brij Sharma
    • 3
  • Lakshmy Ramakrishnan
    • 4
  • Neetu Sharma
    • 5
  • Gajendra Singh
    • 1
  • Neha Sareen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human NutritionAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiostatisticsAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of GastroenterologyIndira Gandhi Medical CollegeShimlaIndia
  4. 4.Department of Cardiac BiochemistryAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  5. 5.Department of PhysiologyIndira Gandhi Medical CollegeShimlaIndia

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