Normative Data of Thyroid Gland Volume in South Indian Neonates and Infants
To establish normative ultrasound data for thyroid gland volume in South Indian neonates and infants and compare with abnormal sonological features of thyroid in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) to explore thyroid ultrasound utility as a supportive screening tool to newborn screening programs for early detection of CH.
In view of impact of geo ethnic factors, varying growth velocities and body mass indices of human population worldwide, specific regional, age and gender related reference data for thyroid gland size and volume are vital. This study was an offshoot of ICMR pilot New Born Screening (NBS) project for CH.
Formula used for thyroid volume estimation was ellipsoidal formula D1 x D2 x D3 × 0.523.
It was a prospective observational study. The neonates who screened negative for Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) with repeat normal serum TSH and free thyroxine were selected. One hundred fifty seven infants were enrolled which included 99 boys and 58 girls. The study population included children in age groups from 3 d to 1 y six months.
Data analysis was done by descriptive method and unpaired t test. Mean thyroid volume was 0.26 ml with 0.27 ml in boys and 0.24 ml in girls. Statistically significant “p value” was noted in single lobe measurements among boys and girls.
Thyroid gland volume normative data play a key role in evaluation of thyroid sonological abnormalities in CH and there is effective utility of ultrasound as a supportive diagnostic and prognostic screening tool for early detection of CH.
KeywordsEllipsoidal formula Dyshormonogenesis Neonatal thyroid volume nomogram Ultrasound thyroid
1. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) National Task Force (NTF) Panel and Steering Committee Members For Inborn metabolic disorders (IMD) project on New Born Screening (NBS) for Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH) and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH): Dr. S. S. Agarwal, Dr. I. C. Verma, Dr. Veena Kalra, Dr. Vasantha Muthusamy, Dr. Roli Mathur.
2. Fetal Care Research Foundation (FCRF), Chennai.
The ICMR project at Chennai centre was supported by Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Hospital for Women and Children, Egmore (affiliated to Madras Medical College, Chennai) as project participants and samples contributing centre.
Chennai centre FCRF regional coordinating faculty team members.
Dr. S. Suresh, Dr. Indrani Suresh, Dr. Dharani Dharan are responsible for thyroid gland measurements, Mrs. Chandra Sonographer for data compilation and Dr. V. C. Punitha, PhD Epidemiologist, for data analysis. Dr. Shriraam Mahadevan, Dr. Sujatha Jagadeesh for contributory write up of article. Staff nurse Mrs. Ramani Manohar for participants and patients care.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Source of Funding
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) New Delhi and Fetal Care Research Foundation (FCRP), Chennai.
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