Urinary Screening for Early Detection of Kidney Diseases

  • Kamlesh S. Suthar
  • Aruna V. Vanikar
  • Lovelesh A. Nigam
  • Rashmi D. Patel
  • Kamal V. Kanodia
  • Umang G. Thakkar
  • Paulin A. Gandhi
  • Sheetal A. Chandak
  • Amit V Prajapati
  • Minaxi H. Patel
Original Article
  • 36 Downloads

Abstract

Objective

Urinary screening is a simple inexpensive tool to evaluate kidney functions. The authors carried out urinary screening of school children for early detection of kidney diseases.

Methods

Children in the age group 5–15 y were screened for urinalysis. They were divided in 2 groups; group-1 included 5–10 y and group-2 included >10–15 y old children.

Results

Urine samples of 3340(78%) out of 4283 enrolled children were tested. Abnormal samples were found in 5.75%; with proteinuria in 4.59%, pyuria in 3.29% and hematuria in 4.31%. Males constituted 47.71% in group-1 and 54.64% in group-2. Low body mass index was found in 94.1% group-1 and 78.99% group-2 children. Mild proteinuria was found in 1.2% group-1 and 2.56% group-2 children. Severe proteinuria was more in group-2 (0.77% vs. 0.06%) with female preponderance. Glucosuria was found in 1 boy of group-2. Urobilinogen was more in group-2 (0.65% vs. 0.24%) with male preponderance. Nitrituria was found in 9 girls. Pyuria (2.02% vs. 1.27%) and hematuria were more in group-2 (3.04% vs. 1.87%) with female preponderance. Combined proteinuria and hematuria (0.42% vs. 0.24%) as well bacteruria and fungaluria were more in group-2 (4.11% vs. 1.39%). Six of 192 children with abnormal urinary findings were treated; 1 for urinary calculus and 5 for urinary tract infection.

Conclusions

Abnormal urinary findings were more common in children >10 y of age. Thus urinary screening program of children can become useful for early detection of kidney diseases and contribute towards building up of a healthy nation.

Keywords

Urinary screening Dipstick urine analysis Hematuria Proteinuria Pediatric kidney diseases Pyuria 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

CKD

Chronic kidney diseases

DM

Diabetes mellitus

ESRD

End stage renal disease

NS

Nephrotic syndrome

UTI

Urinary tract infection

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to all Hospital information system department, Pediatricians and Nephrologists who gave their valuable guidance in designing this study on the occasion of World Kidney Day-2016, and to Statisticians and lab staff members who assisted in carrying out the lab analysis. The authorities of School Health Program under Govt. of Gujarat and members of the Institutional Review Board also deserve special thanks since they permitted this study and Govt. granted financial support for carrying out this study.

Contributions

KSS: Designed the study and was the principal investigator for carrying and implementing the study; AVV: Approved the study, supervised all the lab work and wrote and finalized the manuscript; LAN, RDP, KVK, UGT, PAG, SAC, AVP, MHP: Contributed in study design, carrying out the tests and study and in writing the manuscript. AVV will act as guarantor for the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Consent of parents/guardians/School authorities/Institutional Review Board

Obtained.

Conflict of Interest

None.

Source of Funding

School Health Program, Govt. of Gujarat.

Supplementary material

12098_2017_2494_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (241 kb)
Annexure 1Questionnaire- English language (PDF 241 kb)
12098_2017_2494_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (278 kb)
Annexure 2Questionnaire- Local language (PDF 277 kb)

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Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamlesh S. Suthar
    • 1
  • Aruna V. Vanikar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lovelesh A. Nigam
    • 1
  • Rashmi D. Patel
    • 1
  • Kamal V. Kanodia
    • 1
  • Umang G. Thakkar
    • 2
  • Paulin A. Gandhi
    • 1
  • Sheetal A. Chandak
    • 1
  • Amit V Prajapati
    • 1
  • Minaxi H. Patel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Lab Medicine, Transfusion Services & ImmunohematologyG.R. Doshi and K.M Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases and Research Centre and Dr. H.L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences (IKDRC-ITS)AhmedabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell TherapyG.R. Doshi and K.M. Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases and Research Centre and Dr. H.L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences (IKDRC-ITS)AhmedabadIndia

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