Epidemiological Profile of Acute Viral Encephalitis

  • Rajesh Kumar
  • Pankaj Kumar
  • Manoj Kumar Singh
  • Dipti Agarwal
  • Bendangienla Jamir
  • Shashi Khare
  • Samrendra Narayan
Original Article

Abstract

Objective

To study the etiology and clinico-epidemiological profile of acute viral encephalitis in children with acute encephalitis syndrome (AES).

Methods

An observational study including 100 patients fulfilling the criteria for AES was conducted in children of age group 1 mo – 16 y. Viral isolation was done on RD cells, HEp-2 cells and Vero cells from the cerebrospinal fluid samples of suspected viral encephalitis (VE) cases. An enzyme immunoassay for IgM antibodies was performed for measles, mumps, Varicella zoster virus (VZV), Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done for Cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV), HSV1 & 2, VZV, Enterovirus, Parecho virus, Human Herpes virus (HHV 6, 7) and Parvovirus B19. A micro neutralization test was performed for Enterovirus 71.

Results

Out of enrolled 100 patients, 73 were of probable viral encephalitis. HSV1 (31.50%) was the commonest virus followed by Adenovirus (10.95%), Parvovirus (2.73%), JE virus (1.36%), Enterovirus (1.36%), EBV (1.36%), and mixed infection with HSV & EBV (1.36%). HSV 1 caused significant morbidity in children. The common computed tomography (CT) findings were hypodensities in the fronto- parietal lobe followed by cerebral edema.

Conclusions

The landscape of AES in India has changed in the previous decade, and both outbreak investigations and surveillance studies have increasingly reported non-JEV etiologies; because of these findings there is a need to explore additional strategies to prevent AES beyond vector control and JEV vaccination.

Keywords

Acute encephalitis syndrome Herpes simplex virus 1 Japanese encephalitis virus Multiplex PCR 

Notes

Contributions

All the authors contributed in study, manuscript formation and review of literature. RK will act as guarantor for this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

None.

Source of Funding

None.

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Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajesh Kumar
    • 1
  • Pankaj Kumar
    • 1
  • Manoj Kumar Singh
    • 1
  • Dipti Agarwal
    • 1
  • Bendangienla Jamir
    • 1
  • Shashi Khare
    • 2
  • Samrendra Narayan
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsSarojini Naidu Medical CollegeAgraIndia
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyNational Center for Diseases ControlNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of RadiologySarojini Naidu Medical CollegeAgraIndia

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