- 231 Downloads
Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminth infection of nervous system in humans caused by the encysted larvae of Taenia solium. It is a major cause of epilepsy in tropical areas and the most common cause of focal-onset seizures in North Indian children. Children with neurocysticercosis have pleomorphic manifestations depending on the location, number and viability of the cysts and host response. In endemic areas, neurocysticercosis should be clinically suspected in any child with recent-onset seizures, headache or focal motor deficits where there is no other suggestion of an underlying neurological disorder. Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is essentially based on neuroimaging; visualization of a scolex is diagnostic. Management includes use of cysticidal drugs usually albendazole, which seems to be effective for lesion resolution and seizure remission, use of steroids and anti-epileptic drugs. Single lesions portend good prognosis with resolution of lesions in >60% of the cases within 6 mo and good seizure control. Prognosis is guarded in cysticercus encephalitis, racemose and extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis.
KeywordsNeurocysticercosis Tropical disease Taenia solium Tape-worm Ring-enhancing lesion
PS: Revision of the draft and final approval of the manuscript; AGS: Drafted the manuscript and reviewed the literature. PS will act as guarantor for this paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Source of Funding
- 4.WHO. Accelerating work to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases. A roadmap for impementation. Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2012.Google Scholar
- 10.Medina MT, Aguilar-Estrada RL, Alvarez A, et al. Reduction in rate of epilepsy from neurocysticercosis by community interventions: the Salama, Honduras study. Epilepsia. 2011;52:1177–85.Google Scholar
- 20.Ito A, Putra MI, Subahar R, et al. Dogs as alternative intermediate hosts of Taenia solium in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia confirmed by highly specific ELISA and immunoblot using native and recombinant antigens and mitochondrial DNA analysis. J Helminthol. 2002;76:311–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Saini AG, Vyas S, Singhi P. Racemose neurocysticercosis. J Infect Public Health. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2016.11.019.
- 44.Mandal J, Singhi PD, Khandelwal N, Malla N. Evaluation of ELISA and dot blots for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis, in children found to have single or multiple enhancing lesions in computerized tomographic scans of the brain. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006;100:39–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 45.Rodriguez S, Dorny P, Tsang VC, et al. Detection of Taenia solium antigens and anti-T. solium antibodies in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with intraparenchymal or extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1345–52.Google Scholar
- 47.Garcia HH, Gilman RH, Catacora M, Verastegui M, Gonzalez AE, Tsang VC. Serologic evolution of neurocysticercosis patients after antiparasitic therapy. Cysticercosis working group in Peru. J Infect Dis. 1997;175:486–9.Google Scholar
- 51.Kaur S, Singhi P, Singhi S, Khandelwal N. Combination therapy with albendazole and praziquantel versus albendazole alone in children with seizures and single lesion neurocysticercosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled double blind trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:403–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 57.Ash A, Okello A, Khamlome B, Inthavong P, Allen J, Thompson RC. Controlling Taenia solium and soil transmitted helminths in a northern Lao PDR village: impact of a triple dose albendazole regime. Acta Trop. 2015; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.05.018.