The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 84, Issue 12, pp 893–896 | Cite as

Immunological and Virological Responses to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1 Infected Children

  • Ravinder Singh
  • Aparna Mukherjee
  • Mohit Singla
  • Bimal Kumar Das
  • Sushil Kumar Kabra
  • Rakesh Lodha
Original Article



To evaluate immunological and virological outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children at six months of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).


Records of HIV infected children <15-y-old were reviewed to identify those who were initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy between 2010 and 2014 and had CD4+ T cell percentage and HIV-1 viral load report at baseline visit and after 6 mo of initiation of the treatment.


Seventy-four HIV infected children [26% girls, median age IQR 36 (24–108) mo] were included in the study. At the end of six months of HAART, median increase of 11% (6–15%) in CD4+ T cell percentage from the baseline levels was observed; nineteen (26%) children showed an increase in CD4+ T cell percentage of 15% or more at 6 mo. Viral load was undetectable (<47 copies/ml) in 27 (36.4%) children; 21 (28.3%) children had 47- < 500 copies/ml; 16 (21.6%) children had 500- < 10,000 copies/ml and 10 (13.5%) children had ≥10,000 copies/ml. At six months, only 15 (20.2%) children exhibited positive immuno-virological response to HAART (≥ 15% increase in CD4% and <47 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml).


While HAART was effective in improving the immunological and virological parameters in the index cohort of children, virological responses were less robust.


Pediatric HIV HAART Immunological response Virological response 



RL, SKK, BKD conceptualized and designed the work. RS, AM and MS were involved in data collection, data analysis and interpretation. RS drafted the manuscript. AM helped in data interpretation and manuscript evaluation. RL, SKK, BKD critically revised the manuscript. All authors approved the manuscript for publication. RL will act as guarantor for the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest


Source of Funding

Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi.


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Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ravinder Singh
    • 1
  • Aparna Mukherjee
    • 1
  • Mohit Singla
    • 1
  • Bimal Kumar Das
    • 2
  • Sushil Kumar Kabra
    • 1
  • Rakesh Lodha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia

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