The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 85, Issue 1, pp 60–65 | Cite as

Child with Allergies or Allergic Reactions

  • Reshma A
  • Arun K. Baranwal
Review Article


Incidence of allergic disorders in children has increased significantly over time due to environmental and life-style changes. These include allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, allergic conjunctivitis, food allergies, bronchial asthma, drug allergies, insect bites and anaphylaxis; most being IgE-mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reactions to common environmental and food antigens. Although most of them are self-limiting, they may adversely affect the quality of life and sometimes become life-threatening as well. These conditions are more likely to get underestimated, or over-diagnosed as recurrent infections. Hence a careful history and physical examination by attending pediatrician are necessary to differentiate it from infections. Diagnostic tests have limited value in identifying the inciting allergen. Management includes avoidance of the inciting allergens (if known), combined with symptomatic relief provided by a combination of pharmacological agents, e.g., antihistamines, anticholinergics, chromones, leukotriene-modifying agents, topical and systemic steroids. Further, specialist consultation needs to be sought, for children with recurrent or persistent symptoms. The scope of this manuscript does not include bronchial asthma.


Allergy Allergic reactions Anaphylaxis Children 



AMDR did the literature search and drafted the manuscript. AKB guided the framework of the manuscript and did a critical review and approved the version to be published. Dr. Muralidharan Jayashree will act as guarantor for this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest


Source of Funding



  1. 1.
    Sur DKC, Plesa ML. Treatment of allergic rhinitis. Am Fam Physician. 2015;92:985–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sánchez-Hernández MC, Montero J, Rondon C, et al. Consensus document on allergic conjunctivitis (DECA). J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2015;25:94–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D’Auria E, Banderali G, Barberi S, et al. Atopic dermatitis: recent insight on pathogenesis and novel therapeutic target. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2016;34:98–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tam JS. Cutaneous manifestation of food allergy. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am. 2017;37:217–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kulthanan K, Tuchinda P, Chularojanamontri L, et al. Clinical practice guideline for diagnosis and management of urticaria. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2016;34:190–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Simons FER, Ardusso LR, Bilò MB, et al. International consensus on (ICON) anaphylaxis. World Allergy Organ J. 2014;7:9.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lieberman P, Nicklas RA, Randolph C, et al. Anaphylaxis: a practice parameter update 2015. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;115:341–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Simons FER, Simons KJ. H1 antihistamines: current status and future directions. World Allergy Organ J. 2008;1:145–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Pediatric Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations