Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): An Observational Study of Etiology, Severity and Burden of Comorbidities
To study the etiology and burden of comorbidities across stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Children, 2–16 y of age with CKD Stages II- IV were recruited over 12 mo. The etiology, clinical presentation and severity of complications were studied.
Among 78 children [Stage II (n = 21), Stage III (n = 26), Stage IV (n = 31)], congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) was the commonest etiology and 28 were newly diagnosed in Stage III /IV. High prevalence of comorbidities was observed with growth retardation (65%), hypertension (59%), hyperphosphatemia (32%), vitamin D deficiency (92%), dyslipidemia (64%), left ventricular hypertrophy (45%) and hyperparathyroidism (56%). While most comorbidities correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate and severity of CKD, hypertension, vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular morbidity were prevalent even in early stages.
CAKUT was the commonest cause of CKD. Late detection and high prevalence of comorbidities even in early stages of CKD were observed.
KeywordsChronic kidney disease Children
NK designed the study, recruited patients, conducted the evaluation and data analysis and drafted the manuscript. AAI contributed to the concept and study design, took overall responsibility of the study, gave inputs on data interpretation and prepared the manuscript. AAI will act as guarantor for the paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Source of Funding
Funded by International Society of Nephrology Clinical Research Program Grant.
- 3.Levey AS, Eckardt K-U, Tsukamoto Y, et al. Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: A position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int. 2005;67:2089-100.Google Scholar
- 8.National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004;114:555–76.Google Scholar
- 9.KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2013;3:5-133.Google Scholar
- 11.North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Cooperative Studies (NAPRTCS) 2014 Annual Transplant Report. Emmes. 2014. https://web.emmes.com/study/ped/annlrept/annualrept2014.pdf. Accessed May 2017.