Comparison of Scrub Typhus With and Without Meningitis
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To compare the children admitted with scrub typhus with and without meningitis.
All children admitted with scrub typhus over a 62 mo period were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed to compare those with and without meningitis for demographic, clinical, investigations and outcome parameters.
Four hundred twenty seven children were admitted with scrub typhus and 63 (14.8%) had meningitis. The mean cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell (CSF WBC) count was 71 cells/cu.mm. with mean lymphocyte proportion of 92%. The mean CSF protein was 67 mg/dl and mean CSF glucose, 55 mg/dl. Of those who had meningitis, 24 (38.1%) had seizures, 17 (27%) had altered sensorium and 37 (58.7%) had nuchal rigidity. Finding an eschar, being male, breathing difficulty, and hepatomegaly were significantly more common in those without meningitis. Children with meningitis also had shorter duration of fever at presentation (median [IQR] 7  days vs. 10  days; p = 0.028). Headache and vomiting were significantly more common in those with meningitis. Hemoglobin and platelet were significantly lower in those without meningitis. Duration of hospitalization was significantly longer in those with meningitis, whereas acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was significantly more common in those without meningitis. There was no neurological deficit in both the groups. There was no mortality in the meningitis group compared to 3.6% mortality in the non-meningitis group (p = 0.213).
Meningitis occurs in 15% of those with scrub typhus; those with meningitis have good neurological outcome with little mortality; those without meningitis have more complications and poorer outcome.
KeywordsScrub typhus Meningitis Children Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
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