Newer Vaccines against Mosquito-borne Diseases
Mosquitos are responsible for a number of protozoal and viral diseases. Malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya epidemics occur commonly all over the world, leading to marked mortality and morbidity in children. Zika, Yellow fever and West Nile fever are others requiring prevention. Environmental control and mosquito bite prevention are useful in decreasing the burden of disease but vaccination has been found to be most cost-effective and is the need of the hour. RTS,S/AS01 vaccine is the first malaria vaccine being licensed for use against P. falciparum malaria. Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) against dengue was licensed first in Mexico in 2015. A Vero-cell derived, inactivated and alum-adjuvanted JE vaccine based on the SA14–14-2 strain was approved in 2009 in North America, Australia and various European countries. It can be used from 2 mo of age. In India, immunization is carried out in endemic regions at 1 y of age. Another inactivated Vero-cell culture derived Kolar strain, 821564XY, JE vaccine is being used in India. Candidate vaccines against dengue, chikungunya and West Nile fever are been discussed. A continued research and development of new vaccines are required for controlling these mosquito-borne diseases.
KeywordsMosquito-borne diseases Vaccines Children
- 1.Caraballo H, King K. Emergency department management of mosquito-borne illness: malaria, dengue, and West Nile virus. Emerg Med Pract. 2014;16:1–23. quiz 23–4.Google Scholar
- 2.World Health Organization Japanese encephalitis. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs386/en/. Accessed on 26th Jan 2017.
- 3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Japanese Encephalitis - Chapter 3 - 2016 Yellow Book Travelers’ Health. Available at: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2016/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/japanese-encephalitis. Accessed on 21st Jan 2016.
- 4.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Use of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in children: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62:898–900.Google Scholar
- 5.Fischer M, Lindsey N, Staples JE, Hills S; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Japanese encephalitis vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:1–27.Google Scholar
- 6.Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Immunization Practices of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (ACVIP of IAP). Available at: http://acvip.org/professional/columns/je-vaccines. Accessed on 23rd Jan 2017.
- 9.Sanchayan K, Fernandopulle R, Amarasinghe A, Thiyahiny SN, Sri Ranganathan S. Safety of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine given at the age of 9 mo in National Immunisation Programme of Sri Lanka. Ceylon Med J. 2016;61:99–105.Google Scholar
- 10.Monath TP, Guirakhoo F, Nichols R, et al. Chimeric live, attenuated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis (ChimeriVax-JE): phase 2 clinical trials for safety and immunogenicity, effect of vaccine dose and schedule, and memory response to challenge with inactivated Japanese encephalitis antigen. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:1213–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Health AGD of. 4.8 Japanese encephalitis. Australian Government Department of Health. Available at: http://www.immunise.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/Handbook10-home~handbook10part4~handbook10-4-8. Accessed on 22nd Feb 2017.
- 12.Sricharoenchai S, Lapphra K, Chuenkitmongkol S, et al. Immunogenicity of a live attenuated chimeric Japanese encephalitis vaccine as a booster dose after primary vaccination with live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine: a phase IV study in Thai children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017;36:e45–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Nasveld PE, Marjason J, Bennett S, et al. Concomitant or sequential administration of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine and yellow fever 17D vaccine: randomized double-blind phase II evaluation of safety and immunogenicity. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:906–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 14.World Health Organization. Yellow fever. Available at: http://www.who.int/ith/vaccines/yf/en/. Accessed on 24th Jan 2017.
- 15.Yf-Vax (Yellow Fever Vaccine): Side effects, interactions, warning, dosage & uses. Available at: http://www.rxlist.com/yellow-fever-vaccine-drug.htm. Accessed on 22nd Feb 2017.
- 16.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vaccine Information Statement. Yellow Fever. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/yf.html. Accessed on 28th Jan 2017.
- 17.World Health Organization Malaria. Available at: http://www.who.int/gho/malaria/en/. Accessed on 16th Jan 2017.
- 20.Joint Technical Expert Group & World Health Organization. Background Paper on the RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine, 2015. Available at: http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/ meetings/2015/october/1_Final_malaria_vaccine_background_paper_v2015_09_30.pdf. Accessed on 22nd Jan 2017.
- 21.World Health Organization. Questions and answers on RTS,S/ASO1 malaria vaccine. Available at: http://www.who.int/immunization/research/development/malaria_vaccine_qa/en/. Accessed on 18th Jan 2017.
- 26.World Health Organization. Dengue. Available at: http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/meetings/2016/april/2_Smith_Clinical_Trial_Results_SAGE.pdf. Accessed on 24th Feb 2017.
- 28.Rodriguez Melo FI, Morales JJR, De Los Santos AHM, Rivas E, Vigne C, Noriega F. Immunogenicity and safety of a booster injection of DTap-IPV//Hib (Pentaxim®) administered concomitantly with tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy toddlers aged 15 to 18 mo in Mexico: a randomized trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017. doi:10.1097/INF.0000000000001542.
- 30.World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization. Background paper on dengue vaccines prepared by the SAGE working group on Dengue vaccines. Available at: http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/meetings/2016/april/presentations_background_docs/en/. Accessed on 3rd Mar 2017.
- 31.Brandler S, Tangy F. Vaccines in development against West Nile virus. Viruses. 2013;5:2384–409.Google Scholar
- 32.Petrovsky N, Larena M, Siddharthan V, et al. An inactivated cell culture Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JE-ADVAX) formulated with delta inulin adjuvant provides robust heterologous protection against West Nile encephalitis via cross-protective memory B cells and neutralizing antibody. J Virol. 2013;87:10324–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 36.Testing Begins On An Experimental Zika Vaccine With Inactivated Virus. Available at: http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/11/07/501015866/testing-begins-on-an-experimental-zika-vaccine-with-inactivated-virus. Accessed on 23rd Jan 2017.
- 37.World Health Organization. Chikungunya. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs327/en/. Accessed on 28th Jan 2017.
- 39.Erasmus JH, Auguste AJ, Kaelber JT, et al. A chikungunya fever vaccine utilizing an insect-specific virus platform. Nat Med advance online publication. Available at: http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nm.4253.html. Accessed on 23rd Jan 2017.