Advances Towards Painless Vaccination and Newer Modes of Vaccine Delivery
- 357 Downloads
Vaccines have been successful in reducing the mortality and morbidity, but most of them are delivered by intramuscular or intravenous route. They are associated with pain to the baby and bring lot of anxiety for the parents. There has been a marked increase in the number of injections required in first two years of life for completing the vaccination schedule. Hence, there is a need to have a painless vaccine delivery system. Numerous new routes of vaccination like, oral, nasal and transdermal routes are being tried. Oral polio and intranasal influenza have already been a success. Other newer approaches like edible vaccines, nasal sprays, dry powder preparations, jet injectors, microneedles and nanopatches are promising in delivering painless vaccines. Many of them are under clinical trials. These vaccine delivery systems will not only be painless but also cost effective, safe and easy to administer in mass population. They may be devoid of the need of cold chain. Painless delivery system will ensure better compliance to vaccination schedule.
KeywordsPainless vaccination Needle-free vaccination Newer vaccine delivery
The main manuscript was prepared by NG and it was revised by critical outputs from AA. AA will act as guarantor for the paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Source of Funding
- 1.World Health Organization. The expanded programme on immunization. Available at: http://www.who.int/immunization/programmes_systems/supply_chain/benefits_of_immunization/en/ . Accessed on 7th Jan 2017.
- 3.CDC Birth-18 Years Immunization Schedule. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/imz/child-adolescent.html. Accessed on 8th Jan 2017.
- 4.CDC Press Releases 2016. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2016/s0622-laiv-flu.html . Accessed on 27th Dec 2016.
- 8.Halpert C, Meier S, Naus M. Reducing immunization injection pain in infants. BCMJ. 2015;57:189.Google Scholar
- 9.Eden LM, Macintosh JLB, Luthy KE, Beckstrand RL. Minimizing pain during childhood vaccination injections: improving adherence to vaccination schedules. Pediatric Health Med Ther. 2014;5:127–40.Google Scholar
- 11.World Health Organization. Oral polio vaccine (OPV). Available at: http://www.who.int/biologicals/areas/vaccines/polio/opv/en/ . Accessed on 27th Dec 2016.
- 13.Jackson BR, Iqbal S, Mahon B; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Updated recommendations for the use of typhoid vaccine--Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:305–8.Google Scholar
- 21.Raghavan S, Östberg AK, Flach C-F, et al. Sublingual immunization protects against Helicobacter pylori infection and induces T and B cell responses in the stomach. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4251–60.Google Scholar
- 24.Breath-fresh strips inspire new platform for vaccines. The Chemical Institute of Canada magazine September 2014. Available at: http://www.cheminst.ca/magazine/news/breath-fresh-strips-inspire-new-platform-vaccines . Accessed on 10th Jan 2017.
- 28.CDC Vaccine Information Statement on Live Intranasal Influenza. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flulive.html . Accessed on 27th Dec 2016.
- 30.Suzuki H, Watari A, Hashimoto E, et al. C-Terminal Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin-mediated antigen delivery for nasal pneumococcal vaccine. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0126352.Google Scholar
- 32.Nasal spray vaccine has potential for long-lasting protection from Ebola virus. Science Daily. Available at: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/11/141103114140.htm. Accessed on 26th Dec 2016.
- 43.Behrens RH, Cramer JP, Jelinek T, et al. Efficacy and safety of a patch vaccine containing heat-labile toxin from Escherichia coli against travellers’ diarrhoea: a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial in travellers from Europe to Mexico and Guatemala. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:197–204.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 44.Prow TW, Chen X, Prow NA, et al. Nanopatch-targeted skin vaccination against West Nile Virus and Chikungunya virus in mice. Small Weinh Bergstr Ger. 2010;6:1776–84.Google Scholar
- 46.CDC Flu Vaccination by Jet Injector Seasonal Influenza (Flu). Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/vaccine/jet-injector.htm. Accessed on 16th Dec 2016.