The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 84, Issue 9, pp 681–684 | Cite as

Flexible Bronchoscopy in Non-resolving Pneumonia

  • Javeed Iqbal Bhat
  • Wasim Ahmad Wani
  • Qazi Iqbal Ahmad
  • Bashir Ahmad Charoo
  • Syed Wajid Ali
  • Ambreen Ali Ahangar
  • Muzafar Ahmad
Original Article



To study the utility of diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in children with non-resolving pneumonia.


This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital from July 2015 through June 2016. Fifty-two consecutive children of both genders from 1 mo to 14 y of age with a diagnosis of non-resolving pneumonia were included. Flexible bronchoscopy was done in all patients with or without bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). BAL was sent for gram staining, culture, gene expert™ and lipid laden macrophages examination. Main outcome measures were to find any morphological abnormality in the tracheobronchial tree and organism profile of a positive BAL culture.


During the period of 12 mo, 52 consecutive patients of non-resolving pneumonia were enrolled. Median (IQR) age of the study population was 12 (68.8) mo. Mean ± SD duration of illness was 22.7 ± 5.6 d. Flexible bronchoscopy was found to be very safe and effective tool that directly led to definitive diagnosis in 30.7% of cases. It was positive for different organisms in 22 (52.3%) children. Neglected foreign body was seen in five patients.


Non-resolving pneumonia is often an area of clinical dilemma. Bacterial infections are the commonest etiology. Non-infectious causes like tracheobronchomalacia and foreign body aspiration are other important etiologies to be looked for. Early bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis can play a crucial role in the evaluation of these patients and may provide an important clue or strongly support the specific diagnosis.


Bronchoalveolar lavage Bronchoscopy Non resolving pneumonia 



JIB and WAW: Collected and compiled the data for thestudy, and drafted the manuscript; BAC and SWA: Conceptualized anddesigned the study; QIA: Finalized the manuscript; AAA: Did statistical analysis and intermittentdata check. MA: Involved in revising the manuscript and helped in data collection. Critical review was performed by all. JIB will act as guarantor for the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest


Source of Funding



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Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javeed Iqbal Bhat
    • 1
  • Wasim Ahmad Wani
    • 1
  • Qazi Iqbal Ahmad
    • 1
  • Bashir Ahmad Charoo
    • 1
  • Syed Wajid Ali
    • 1
  • Ambreen Ali Ahangar
    • 2
  • Muzafar Ahmad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsSKIMSSrinagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiaGMCSrinagarIndia

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