Prevalence of Asymptomatic Microalbuminuria in HIV Positive Children in India
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To study the prevalence of covert or early renal involvement among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive children.
A cross-sectional observational study was carried out on 250 HIV positive children (2–18 y) on follow-up in a tertiary care hospital from January 2014 through June 2015. Those who met the study criteria were evaluated for microalbuminuria and glomerular and tubular dysfunctions.
Fifty-one out of two hundred fifty (20%) children were found to have microalbuminuria though none had any other evidence of renal dysfunction. The incidence of microalbuminuria in children on Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) and those not on ART was 20% and 21% respectively. Neither was there any difference in those with a CD4 count ≤500/cu mm compared with those with counts >500/cu mm. However, the overall CD4 counts were significantly lower in children with microalbuminuria.
Microalbuminuria was detected in 20% of asymptomatic HIV positive children suggesting early glomerular dysfunction and need for regular screening and follow-up.