The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 84, Issue 5, pp 357–363

Methodological Study to Develop Standard Operational Protocol on Oral Drug Administration for Children

  • Sunil Kumar Bijarania
  • Sushma Kumari Saini
  • Sanjay Verma
  • Sukhwinder Kaur
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12098-016-2281-1

Cite this article as:
Bijarania, S.K., Saini, S.K., Verma, S. et al. Indian J Pediatr (2017) 84: 357. doi:10.1007/s12098-016-2281-1



To develop standard operational protocol (SOP) on oral drug administration and checklist to assess the implementation of the developed SOP.


In this prospective methodological study, SOPs were developed in five phases. In the first phase, the preliminary draft of SOPs and checklists were prepared based on literature review, assessment of current practices and focus group discussion (FGD) with bedside working nurses. In the second phase, content validity was checked with the help of Delphi technique (12 experts). Total four drafts were prepared in stages and necessary modifications were made as per suggestions after each Delphi round. Fourth Delphi round was performed after conducting a pilot study. In the fourth phase, all bedside nurses were trained as per SOPs and asked to practice accordingly and observation of thirty oral drug administrations in children was done to check reliability of checklists for implementation of SOPs. In Phase-V, 7 FGDs were conducted with bedside nurses to assess the effectiveness of SOPs.


The Content Validity Index (CVI) of SOP and checklists was 99.77%. Overall standardized Cronbach’s alpha was calculated as 0.94. All the nurses felt that the SOP is useful.


Valid and feasible SOP for drug administration to children through oral route along with valid and reliable checklist were developed. It is recommended to use this document for drug administration to children.


SOP Delphi-technique CVI FGD 

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunil Kumar Bijarania
    • 1
  • Sushma Kumari Saini
    • 1
  • Sanjay Verma
    • 2
  • Sukhwinder Kaur
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Nursing Education, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric MedicinePostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia

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