Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Childhood Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Natural History of Disease

  • Symposium on Pediatric Tuberculosis
  • Published:
The Indian Journal of Pediatrics Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Despite previous misperceptions that childhood tuberculosis (TB) is less relevant, since children tend to develop mild disease, contribute little to transmission and do not impact epidemic control, awareness is growing that TB is an important preventable cause of disease and death among children in TB endemic areas. At an operational level there remains an urgent need for feasible and implementable policies to guide management in resource limited settings. This manuscript reviews the epidemiology and natural history of TB in children in order to improve understanding of the various disease entities encountered and to provide the rationale for different management approaches.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. WHO Report. Global tuberculosis control. Epidemiology, strategy, financing. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Newton SM, Brent AJ, Anderson S, Whittaker E, Kampmann B. Paediatric tuberculosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8:499–510.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Marais BJ, Obihara CC, Warren RW, Schaaf HS, Gie RP, Donald PR. The burden of childhood tuberculosis: a public health perspective. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005;9:1305–13.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Marais BJ, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, Donald PR, Beyers N, Starke J. Childhood pulmonary tuberculosis—Old wisdom and new challenges. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2006;173:1078–90.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Marais BJ, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, et al. The natural history of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis—A critical review of the pre-chemotherapy literature. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004;8:392–402.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Marais BJ, Gie RP, Hesseling AC, Beyers N. Adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis in children aged 10–14 years. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:743–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Nelson LJ, Wells CD. Global epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004;8:636–47.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Marais BJ, Hesseling AC, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, Beyers N. The burden of childhood tuberculosis and the accuracy of routine surveillance data in a high-burden setting. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006;10:259–63.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Marais BJ, Schaaf HS. Childhood tuberculosis: an emerging and previously neglected problem. Infect Dis Clin N Am. 2010;24:727–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Marais BJ, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, Hesseling AC, Enarson DA, Beyers N. The spectrum of childhood tuberculosis in a highly endemic area. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006;10:732–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Chintu C, Mudenda V, Lucas S, et al. Lung diseases at necropsy in African children dying from respiratory illnesses: a descriptive necropsy study. Lancet. 2002;360:985–90.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Harries AD, Zachariah R, Corbett EL, et al. The HIV-associated tuberculosis epidemic—when will we act? Lancet. 2010;375:1906–19.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Marais BJ, Cotton M, Graham SM, Beyers N. Diagnosis and management challenges of childhood TB in the era of HIV. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:S76–85.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Cotton MF, Schaaf HS, Lottering G, Wever HL, Coetzee J, Nachman S. Tuberculosis exposure in HIV-exposed infants in a high-prevalence setting. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:225–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Schaaf HS, Marais BJ, Hesseling AC, Gie RP, Beyers N, Donald PR. Childhood drug-resistant tuberculosis in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95:523–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Gandhi NR, Nunn P, Dheda K, et al. Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: a threat to global control of tuberculosis. Lancet. 2010;375:1830–43.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Marais BJ. Performing TB research in children—issues to consider. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45:737–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Marais BJ. Does finding Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum always equal tuberculosis disease? Am J Respir Crit Care. 2010;181:195–6.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Marais BJ, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, et al. Proposed radiologic classification of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;33:886–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Marais BJ, Schaaf HS, Gie RP, Donald PR. TB contact screening—which way to go? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13:1576–9.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Marais BJ, Ayles H, Graham SM, Godfrey-Faussett P. Screening and preventive therapy for tuberculosis. Chest Clin N Am. 2009;30:827–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Marais BJ, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, et al. Refined symptom-based approach to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis in children. Pediatrics. 2006; e1350–59.

  23. Marais BJ, Donald PR, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, Beyers N. Diversity of disease manifestations in childhood pulmonary tuberculosis. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2005;25:79–86.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Donald PR, Marais BJ, Barry 3rd CE. The influence of age on the epidemiology and pathology of tuberculosis. Lancet. 2010;375:1852–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. World Health Organization. Guidance for National Tuberculosis Programmes on the Management of Tuberculosis in Children. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. WHO/HTM/TB/2006.371.

  26. Gie RP, Matiru RH. Supplying quality-assured child-friendly anti-tuberculosis drugs to children. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13:277–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Marais BJ, Schaaf HS, Donald PR. Pediatric tuberculosis: issues related to current and future treatment options. Future Microbiol. 2009;4:661–75.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Marais BJ, Gupta A, Starke JR, El-Sony A. Tuberculosis in women and children. Lancet. 2010;375:2057–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Conflict of Interest

None.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ben J. Marais.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Marais, B.J. Childhood Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Natural History of Disease. Indian J Pediatr 78, 321–327 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-010-0353-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-010-0353-1

Keywords

Navigation