Advertisement

The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 78, Issue 5, pp 593–602 | Cite as

Prevention of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA): How Far Have We Reached?

  • M. R. LokeshwarEmail author
  • Meenakshi Mehta
  • Nitin Mehta
  • Pallavi Shelke
  • Nee Babar
Symposium on Nutrional Anemia

Abstract

Anemia is a global problem of immense public health significance. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disorder seen all over the world, more in the developing countries, particularly, affecting young children of 6–24 months of age, adolescents, women of reproductive age group and pregnant/ lactating women. Basic approach in prevention of IDA should include education and associated measures to increase the dietary intake of iron, dietary modification to enhance the iron absorption, fortification of food articles, in addition to control the infection and worm infestations. Supplemenldelim 1, of medicinal iron is key to success which can be achieved by daily or intermittent (biweekly/weekly) administration of oral iron to the target group. Reduction of nutritional anemia should receive top priority through proper planning by using better utilization of existing health infrastructure.

Keywords

Iron deficiency anemia Epidemiology of IDA Iron deficiency Prevention of iron deficiency Micronutrient deficiency 

References

  1. 1.
    Nutritional anemia. Report of WHO Scientific group, WHO Technical report series No. 405. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1968.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    WHO-Control of nutritional anemia with special reference to iron deficiency. Report of an IAEA/USAID/WHO Joint meetingTechnical report series No 589. Geneva: World Health organization; 1975Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ICMR Study on preschool Children – ICMR Tech, Rep. series No. 26 National Institute of Nutrition Hydrabad; 1977Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    DeMaeyer E, Adiels-Tegman M. The prevalence of anemia in the world. World Health Stat. 1985;38:302–16.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dallaman PR. Iron deficiency and related nutritional anemia. In: Nathan DG, Oski FA, editors. Hematology of infancy and childhood. WB Saunders; 1987. p. 274–314.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lokeshwar MR, Manglani M, Rao S, Patel S, Kulkarni M. Iron deficiency anemia –clinical manifestation and management. In: Mehta M, Kulkarni M, editors. Proceedings of National Symposium cum work shop on “Child Nutrition–The Indian Scene.”1990. p 269–75.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sheeshadri S. Prevalence and implication of nutritional anemia in children. In: Mehta M, Kulkarni M, editors. Proceeding of National Symposium cum workshop on “Child nutrition. The Indian Scene”; 1990. p. 223–68.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dubey AP. Iron deficiency anemia; epidemiology diagnosis and clinical profile. In: Nutrition in children; developing country concerns New Delhi: Cambridge; 1994. p 492–534.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anemia in South Asia. In Gillespie SR,ed. Malnutrition in South Asia: a Regional Profile. ROS. Publication No.5. UNICEF. 1997; 9:269–73.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gomber S, Kumar S, Rusia U, Gupta P, Agarwal KN, Sharma S. Prevalence and etiology of nutritional anemia’s in early childhood in an urban slum. Indian J Med Res. 1998;107:269–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    NFHS-2. National Family Health survey -2. (1998–1999) International Institute for population sciences (IIPS) Mumbai 2000.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lokeshwar MR, Manglani M, Shah N, Rao A. Clinical manifestations and management of iron deficiency anemia. Special issue on Nutrition. IAP Journal of Practical Pediatrics Indian Acad Pediatr. 1998;6:351–9.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meenakshi M. Nutrition in adolescence. Souvenir Cum Proceedings of Dr. Athavale Research Foundation—9th EM E, 28th March 1999; Mumbai. p. 51–62.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shah N, Lokeshwar MR, Bavdekar SB. Iron deficiency in India. In: Gupte S, editor. Recent advances in Pediatrics special volume in Hematology. Jaypee. 2000; 7:1–21.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gomber S, Bhawna, Madan N, Lal A, Kela K. Prevalence & etiology of nutritional anaemia among school children of urban slums. Indian J Med Res. 2003;118:167–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Choudhury P. “Iron Deficiency”. In: Lokeshwar MR, Shah NK, Agarwal B, Sachdeva A, editors. IAP Specialty Series on Pediatric Hematology & Oncology (Under I A P President Action Plan 2006) 2006; p 28–35. 32Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    UNICEF & MI 2004b: UNICEF & Micronutrient Initiative 2004b. Vitamin & Micronutrient deficiency—a global progress report National Nutrition anemia controle progamme. Policy on controle of nutritional anemia: ministry of health and Family welfare, Govt, of India. 1991; p. 1–8.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    NFHS-3. National family health survey-3 (2005–2006) Institute for population Sciences (IIPS) Mumbai & Macro International 2007: status of children in India.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lokeshwar MR, Choudhary VP. Pediatric hematology. In: Lokeshwar MR, editor. “Anemia in children”. IAP text book of pediatrics. 4th ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical publishers (p)Ltd; 2009. p. 768–71.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kapoor G, Aneja S. Nutritional disorders in adolescent girls. Indian Pediatr. 1992;29:969–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vasanthi G, Powashe AB, Susie H, Sujatha T, Raman I. Iron nutritional status of adolescent girls from rural area and urban slum. Indian Pediatr. 1994;31:127–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Aneja S. In: Patwari AK, Sachdev HPS, editors. “Adolescent health” in frontiers in social pediatrics. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers; 1998. p. 105–20.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mehta M. Nutrition in adolescence. Souvenir Cum Proceedings of Dr. thavale Research Foundation—9th EM E, 28th March 1999; Mumbai. p. 51–62.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chaturvedi S, Kapil U, Bharti T, Gnanasekaran N, Pandey RM. Nutritional status of married adolescent girls in rural Rajasthan. Indian Pediatr. 1994;61:695–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mehta M. Iron deficiency anemia in adolescent girls - problems, priorities and perspectives. Pediatr Today. 2000;3:193–8.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rajaratnam J, Abel R, Asokan JS, Nonathan P. Prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls of rural Tamilnadu. Indian Pediatr. 2000;37:532–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shahbuddin AK, Talukdar K, Talukdar MK, et al. Adolescent nutrition in rural community of Bangladesh. Indian J Pediatr. 2000;67:93–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kaur S, Deshmukh PR, Carg BS. Epidemiological correlates of nutritional anemia in adolescent girls of Rural Wardha. Indian J Community Med. 2006;31:4.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Redy V, Krishnaswamy K. In: Patwari AK, Sachdev HPS, editors. “Hazards of early motherhood” in nutritional priorities in developing countries—frontiers in social pediatrics. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers; 1998. p. 23–44.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Christian Parul, Abbi Rita, Gujral Sunder, Gopaldas Tara. At risk status of pregnant woman of Punchmala and Chandrapur Arogya J lth Sci. 1987.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shanti Gosh-Born Female. In: Patwari AK, Sachdev HPS, editors. Frontiers in social pediatrics. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers; 1998. p. 1–22.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lokeshwar MR, Choudhary VP. Pediatric hematology. In: Lokeshwar MR, editor. “Anemia in children”. IAP text book of pediatrics. 4th ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical; 2006. p. 28–30.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hokama T, Gushi Ken M, Nosoko N. Iron deficiency anemia and child development. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2005;17:19–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lozoff B, Jimenez E, Wolf AW. Long term developmental outcome of infants with iron deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:687–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sachdev HPS, Ger T, Nestel P. Effect of iron supplementation on mental and motor development in children: systemic review of randomized controlled trial. Public Health Nutr. 2005;8:117–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Satyanarayan K, Pradhan DR, Ramanath T, Rao NP. Anemia and physical fitness of school children of rural Hydrabad. Indian Pediatr. 1990;27:715–21.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ekiz C, Agaoglu L, Karakas Z, Gurel N, Yalcin I. The effect of iron deficiency anemia on the fuction of immune system. Hematon J. 2005;5:579–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    WHO Technical Report Series. Control of nutritional anemia with special reference to iron deficiency anemia. Geneva: World-Health Organization; 1975. p. 580.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    WHO Control of nutritional anemia with special reference to iron deficiency. Report of an IAEA/USAID/WHO joint meeting. Technical report series World Health organization Geneva. No.589. 1975.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    DeMaeyer E, Dallaman P, Gurmey JM, Hallberg L, Sood SK, Shrikant SG. Assessment prevelance, and consequence of iron deficiency anemia. Preventing and controlling iron deficiency anemia through primary health care. Geneva: World Health organization; 1989. p. 34–42.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    DeMaeyer E. Preventing and controlling IDA through primary health care for health administer & programme managers. Geneva: WHO; 1989. reprinted 1990.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gillerpies S. (draft) Major issues in developing effective approaches for the prevention & control of ID & an overview prepared for the micro nutrition initiative & UNICEF. Sept 1996.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Food composition tables for Africa Rome, FAO. 1968. Nutrition in children: developing country concern. New Delhi: Cambridge; 1994. p. 492–524.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Paul AA, Southgate DAT. The composition of foods. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press; 1976.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Vir S. Iron deficiency anemia control-A public health program priority. Proc Nutr Soc India. 1999;47:45–73.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    UNICEF & MI 2004b: UNICEF & Micronutrient Initiative 2004b. Vitamin & Micronutrient deficiency—a global progress report National Nutrition anemia controle progamme. Policy on control of nutritional anemia: ministry of health and Family welfare, Govt, of India. 1991. p. 1–8.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chaudhary P, Vir S. Prevention and stretagies for controle of iron deficiency anemia. In: Sachadev HPS, Choudhary P, editors. Nutrition in children: developing country concern. New Delhi; Cambridge; 1994. p. 492–524.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Subadra S, Kalpana H, Pallavi N, Alka S, Nita G. An effective intervention to reduce the prevelance of anemia in young children. Ind J Med Res. 1984;80:164–73.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Subadra S, Alka S, Suhasini B. Effect of ascorbic acid supplements on the hematological status of anemic pre school children. J Hum Nutr Appl Nutr. 1985;39A:151–4.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tara G, Menisha K, Bharadwaj P. Prophylactic iron supplementation for the underprivileged school boys. 1. Two level of dosing and efficacy of teacher distribution. Pediatrics. 1985;22:731–6.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Purnima K, Tara G. Impact of hematenic suplimentation on - hematological status in underprivileged school girls. (8–15 years,). Nutr Res. 1988;7:112–38. 942.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Viteri FE, Garcia-Ibanez R, Torun B. Sodium iron Na fe EDTA as an iron fortification compound in Central America. Absorption Studies. Am J Nutr. 1978;31:961–71.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Working Group on fortification of salt with iron use of common salt fortified with iron in the control & prevention of anemia a collaborative study. Amer J Clin Nutr.1982;35:1442–51.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Indian Council of Medical Research. Evaluation of the National nutritional anemia prophylaxis program-an ICMR task force study. New Delhi: Indian council of Medical Research; 1989.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kapil U. National nutrition supplements programs. Indian Pediatr. 1992;29:1601–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chaudhary P. National nutritional anemia control programme. In: Patwari AK, Sachdev HPS, editors. Frontiers in social pediatrics. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers; 1998. p. 105–20.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group—Combating iron deficiency in Chile a case study, Washington, DC: INACG; 1986.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Levin HM. A benefit cost analysis of nutritional programs for anemia reduction. Res Obs The World Bank. 1986;1:219–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    WHO/UNU/UNICEF -Master protocol: population study of relative effectiveness of weekly and daily supplementation in pregnant women ‘adolescent girls and pre school children’. 1993 –Revised July 28.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mehta MN. Draft report on effectiveness of Daily and Weekly iron & folic Acid supplementation in Anemic, Adolescent Girls based on UNICEF research project submitted to UNICEFl 1998.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Dwivedi A, Werner S. Reducing anemia among Indian adolescent girls through once a weekly supplementation of iron and folic acid. Choudhary P, Dubey AP, editors. Nutri Search, Bulletin of IAP Sub. Speciality Chapter of Nutrition. 2006. p. 13. 974.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zlotkin SH, Arthus P, Antiri KP, Yeung G. Treatment of Anemia with microencapsulated ferrous fumarate plus ascorbic acid and supplied as ‘Sprinkles’ to complementary (weaning) foods. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:791–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. R. Lokeshwar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Meenakshi Mehta
    • 3
  • Nitin Mehta
    • 4
    • 5
  • Pallavi Shelke
    • 6
  • Nee Babar
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric HematologyShushrusha Citizen’s-operative Hospital LtdMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Leelavati Hospital and Research CenterMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of pediatricsMGM HospitalMumbaiIndia
  4. 4.Department of BiochemistrySir HN HospitalMumbaiIndia
  5. 5.Department of BiochemistryKEM HospitalMumbaiIndia
  6. 6.Department of Preventive & Social MedicineLTM Medical College & LTMG HospitalMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations