Retinopathy of Prematurity

  • Deepak Chawla
  • Ramesh Agarwal
  • Ashok K. Deorari
  • Vinod K. Paul
Symposium on AIIMS Protocols in Neonatology — 1


With improved survival of very low birth infants in India, Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is emerging as a significant problem. The most important risk factor in the pathogenesis of ROP is prematurity. Other factors like, problems with oxygenation frequent blood transfusions, sepsis and apnea have also been implicated in the causation of ROP. Essentially asymptomatic in the initial stages, a good screening program is essential for the early detection and treatment of this condition. Description of the various stages of ROP has been included in the protocol. Guidelines regarding the procedure of dilatation, ophthalmic examination and treatment (if required) have been provided. Close co-operation between the ophthalmologist and neonatologist is essential for a successful outcome.

Key words

ROP Prematurity 


  1. 1.
    Maheshwari R, Kumar H, Paul VK, Singh M, Deorari AK, Tiwari HK. Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity in a tertiary care newborn unit in New Delhi. Natl Med J India 1996; 9: 211–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reisner SH, Amir J, Shohat M, Krikler R, Nissenkorn I, Ben-Sira I. Retinopathy of prematurity: Incidence and treatment. Arch Dis Child 1985; 60: 698–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bossi E, Koerner F. Retinopathy of prematurity. Intensive Care Med 1995; 21: 241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Keith CG, Doyle LW. Retinopathy of prematurity in extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 1995; 95: 42–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson CL, Stewart JE. Retinopathy of prematurity. In Clohery JP, Stark AR eds. Manual of Neonatal Care, Philadelphia; Lippincott-Raven 1998; 643–649.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    An International Committee for the Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity. The International Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity Revisited. Arch Ophthalmol 2005; 123: 991–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Section on Ophthalmology American Academy of Pediatrics; American Academy of Ophthalmology; American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Screening examination of premature infants for retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatrics 2006; 117: 572–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Early Treatment For Retinopathy Of Prematurity Cooperative Group. Revised indications for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity: results of the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity randomized trial. Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121: 1684–1694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McGregor ML, Bremer DL, Cole C, McClead RE, Phelps DL, Fellows RR, et al. HOPE-ROP Multicenter Group. High Oxygen Percentage in Retinopathy of Prematurity study. Retinopathy of prematurity outcome in infants with prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity and oxygen saturation >94% in room air: the high oxygen percentage in retinopathy of prematurity study. Pediatrics 2002; 110: 540–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    The STOP-ROP Multicenter Study Group. Supplemental Therapeutic Oxygen for Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity (STOP-ROP), a randomized, controlled trial. 1: primary outcomes. Pediatrics 2000; 105: 295–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roberts D, Dalziel S. Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD004454. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004454.pub2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deepak Chawla
    • 1
  • Ramesh Agarwal
    • 1
  • Ashok K. Deorari
    • 1
  • Vinod K. Paul
    • 1
  1. 1.WHO Collaborating Centre for Training & Research in Newborn Care, Division of Neonatology, Department of PediatricsAll India Institute of Medical SciencesAnsari Nagar, New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations