Cryptography and Communications

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 629–641 | Cite as

On ideal t-tuple distribution of filtering de Bruijn sequence generators

  • Kalikinkar MandalEmail author
  • Bo Yang
  • Guang Gong
  • Mark Aagaard
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Special Issue on Sequences and Their Applications


A binary de Bruijn sequence is a sequence of period 2 n in which every n-tuple occurs exactly once in one period. A de Bruijn sequence is attractive because of having good statistical properties such as long period, balance, high linear complexity and ideal n-tuple distribution. A nonlinear feedback shift register (NLFSR) can be used to generate a de Bruijn sequence. A filtering de Bruijn sequence generator (FDBG) is an NLFSR-based filtering generator constructed by applying a filter function to the internal state of the NLFSR generating a de Bruijn sequence. If the filtering function is balanced, then an FDBG inherits the properties long period, balance, and the lower bound of linear complexity, but its ideal t-tuple distribution property is unknown. In this paper we study ideal t-tuple distribution of filtering de Bruijn (DB) sequence generators. First, we present a construction of a q-ary de Bruijn sequence from a binary de Bruijn sequence. Then, we describe the construction of the FDBG and investigate the ideal t-tuple distribution for two types of the FDBGs. The conditions on the filtering functions for having the ideal t-tuple distribution in the filtering sequences are presented. Finally, we perform an experiment on FDBGs with WG transformations as filtering functions to validate our result and find filtering functions with good cryptographic properties.


Pseudorandom sequences Statistical properties De Bruijn sequences Composited construction 

Mathematics Subject Classification (2010)




The authors wish to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions to improve the quality of the paper. The research is supported by NSERC Discovery Grants.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kalikinkar Mandal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bo Yang
    • 1
  • Guang Gong
    • 1
  • Mark Aagaard
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

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