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Machine learning-based automated planning for hippocampal avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation



Design and evaluate a knowledge-based model using commercially available artificial intelligence tools for automated treatment planning to efficiently generate clinically acceptable hippocampal avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation (HA-PCI) plans in patients with small-cell lung cancer.

Materials and methods

Data from 44 patients with different grades of head flexion (range 45°) were used as the training datasets. A Rapid Plan knowledge-based planning (KB) routine was applied for a prescription of 25 Gy in 10 fractions using two volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) arcs. The 9 plans used to validate the initial model were added to generate a second version of the RP model (Hippo-MARv2). Automated plans (AP) were compared with manual plans (MP) according to the dose-volume objectives of the PREMER trial. Optimization time and model quality were assessed using 10 patients who were not included in the first 44 datasets.


A 55% reduction in average optimization time was observed for AP compared to MP. (15 vs 33 min; p = 0.001).Statistically significant differences in favor of AP were found for D98% (22.6 vs 20.9 Gy), Homogeneity Index (17.6 vs 23.0) and Hippocampus D mean (11.0 vs 11.7 Gy). The AP met the proposed objectives without significant deviations, while in the case of the MP, significant deviations from the proposed target values were found in 2 cases.


The KB model allows automated planning for HA-PCI. Automation of radiotherapy planning improves efficiency, safety, and quality and could facilitate access to new techniques.

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Correspondence to Rodríguez de Dios N.

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Conflict of interest

Núria Rodríguez de Dios reports personal fees from AstraZeneca, and Siemens Healthcare outside the submitted work. Manuel Algara reports personal fees from Siemens Healthcare and Sysmex outside the submitted work. Enric Fernández-Velilla reports personal fees from Siemens Healthcare outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests.

Ethical approval and Informed consent

Patients signed the IC to receive HA-PCI according to the routine clinical practice of the department. The analysis of plans was done retrospectively

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de Dios N, R., Moñino A, M., Liu, C. et al. Machine learning-based automated planning for hippocampal avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation. Clin Transl Oncol 25, 503–509 (2023).

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  • Artificial intelligence
  • Hippocampal avoidance
  • Machine learning
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation
  • Knowledge based