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Trends of incidence, mortality and survival of multiple myeloma in Spain. A twenty-three-year population-based study



Despite major advances, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease. Epidemiological data from high-quality population-based registries are needed to understand the heterogeneous landscape of the disease.


Incidence, mortality and survival in multiple myeloma were comprehensively analyzed in the Girona and Granada population-based cancer registries, over a 23-year study (1994–2016), divided into three periods (1994–2001, 2002–2009 and 2010–2016). Joinpoint regression analysis was used to estimate the annual percentage change in incidence and mortality. Age-standardized net survival was calculated with the Pohar–Perme method.


1957 myeloma patients were included in the study, with a median age of 72 years. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates decreased over time in both sexes and both rates were higher in males. Five-year age-standardized net survival by period was 27.4% (1994–2001), 38.8% (2002–2009), and 47.4% (2010–2016). Survival improved for all age groups: 32.4%, 74.1% and 78.5% for patients aged 15–49; 27.5%, 44.6%, and 58.5% for those aged 50–69; finally, 24.8%, 25.5%, and 26.3% for the older group.


Incidence remained overall stable throughout the study, with only a small increase for men. Mortality was progressively decreasing in both sexes. Both incidence and mortality were higher in men. Age plays a critical role in survival, with impressive improvement in patients younger than 70 years, but only a minor benefit in those older than 70.

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The authors acknowledge with gratitude to Eva Ríos Sánchez the English revision of the manuscript. This paper is part of the doctoral thesis of Daysi Yoe-Ling Chang Chang, first author of the paper, in the context of the Inter-University Health Sciences Doctoral Program offered jointly by the University of Sevilla, the University of Jaen, and the Andalusian School of Public Health.


This research received no external funding.

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All authors provided substantial contributions in the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data. All authors revised the article at any stage and finally approved the version to be published.

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Correspondence to R. Ríos-Tamayo.

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R.R.-T has received research support and honoraria as speaking fee from Amgen, Celgene, Janssen and Takeda. The rest of the authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Chang-Chan, DYL., Ríos-Tamayo, R., Rodríguez Barranco, M. et al. Trends of incidence, mortality and survival of multiple myeloma in Spain. A twenty-three-year population-based study. Clin Transl Oncol 23, 1429–1439 (2021).

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  • Multiple myeloma
  • Population-based registry
  • Incidence
  • Mortality
  • Survival