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Cross-talk between ribosome biogenesis, translation, and mTOR in CD133+ 4/CD44+ prostate cancer stem cells



To investigate the gene expression profile of CSCs and to explore the key pathways and specific molecular signatures involved in the characteristic of CSCs.

Materials and methods

CD133+ /CD44+ CSCs and bulk population (non-CSCs) were isolated from DU-145 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We used Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 Expression to investigate gene expression profiling of CSCs and non-CSCs. Protein–protein interaction (PPI) network analysis was performed using the STRING database. Biomarkers selected based on gene expression profiling were visually analyzed using immunofluorescence staining method. An image analysis program, ImageJ®, was used for the analysis of fluorescence intensity.


In microarray analysis, we found that many ribosomal proteins and translation initiation factors that constitute the mTOR complex were highly expressed. PPI analysis using the 33 genes demonstrated that there was a close interaction between ribosome biogenesis, translation, and mTOR signaling. The fluorescence amount of mTOR and MLST8 were higher in CSCs compared to non-CSCs.


The increase in a number of genes associated with ribosome biogenesis, translation, and mTOR signaling may be important to evaluate prognosis and determine treatment approach for prostate cancer (PCa). A better understanding of the molecular pathways associated with CSCs may be promising to develop targeted therapies to prolong survival in PCa.

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American Type Culture Collection


Cancer stem cell




Differentially expressed genes


Prostate cancer cell lines

DU-145 CSC:

DU-145 cancer stem cell

DU-145 non-CSC:

DU-145 non-cancer stem cell (bulk population)


Erythroblastosis virus oncogene


Fluorescence-activated cell separation


Mammalian target of rapamycin


Phosphate-buffered saline


Prostate cancer


Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase


Protein–protein interaction


Stem cell


Androgen-regulated transmembrane serine protease gene


Homo sapiens unc-51-like kinase 1


Homo sapiens unc-51-like kinase 2


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Authors and Affiliations



Z Binal, E Acikgoz, G Oktem: Protocol/project development; Z Binal, E Acikgoz, F Kızılay, G Oktem, B Altay: Data collection or management; E Acikgoz, F Kızılay: Data analysis; Z Binal, E Acikgoz, F Kızılay, B Altay: Manuscript writing/editing.

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Correspondence to F. Kızılay.

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Binal, Z., Açıkgöz, E., Kızılay, F. et al. Cross-talk between ribosome biogenesis, translation, and mTOR in CD133+ 4/CD44+ prostate cancer stem cells. Clin Transl Oncol 22, 1040–1048 (2020).

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  • Prostate cancer
  • Cancer stem cell
  • Ribosomal proteins
  • Translation
  • mTOR