Clinical and Translational Oncology

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 391–403 | Cite as

Macrophage polarization as a novel weapon in conditioning tumor microenvironment for bladder cancer: can we turn demons into gods?

  • C. Rubio
  • E. Munera-Maravilla
  • I. Lodewijk
  • C. Suarez-Cabrera
  • V. Karaivanova
  • R. Ruiz-Palomares
  • J. M. ParamioEmail author
  • M. DueñasEmail author
Review Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. The Immune System and Cancer\Immunotherapy


Macrophages are major components of the immune infiltration in cancer where they can affect tumor behavior. In the bladder, they play important roles during the resolution of infectious processes and they have been associated with a worse clinical prognosis in bladder cancer. The present review focused on the characteristics of these important immune cells, not only eliciting an innate immune surveillance, but also on their importance during the cancer immunoediting process. We further discuss the potential of targeting macrophages for anticancer therapy, the current strategies and the state of the art as well as the foreseen role on combined therapies on the near future. This review shows how a comprehensive understanding of macrophages within the tumor should translate to better clinical outcome and new therapeutic strategies focusing especially on bladder cancer.


TAMs in cancer TAMs in bladder TAMs targeted therapy 



This study was funded by the following: FEDER cofounded MINECO Grant SAF2015-66015-R, Grant ISCIII-RETIC RD12/0036/0009, PIE 15/00076 and CB/16/00228 to Jesús M. Paramio.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study informed consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biomedical Research Institute I + 12University Hospital “12 de Octubre”MadridSpain
  2. 2.Molecular Oncology UnitCIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas)MadridSpain
  3. 3.Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC)MadridSpain

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