Advertisement

Clinical and Translational Oncology

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 489–496 | Cite as

Trends in lung cancer incidence by histologic subtype in the south of Spain, 1985–2012: a population-based study

  • I. LinaresEmail author
  • E. Molina-Portillo
  • J. Expósito
  • J. A. Baeyens
  • C. Suárez
  • M. J. Sánchez
Research Article

Abstract

Purpose

To analyze and interpret age- and sex-specific incidence trends of lung cancer in Granada over the period 1985–2012 and to further analyze these trends by histologic subtype.

Methods

Incidence data were obtained from the population-based cancer registry located in Granada (Southern Spain). All cases with newly diagnosed primary lung cancer over the period 1985–2012 (n = 8658) and defined by International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (codes C33–C34) were included. Joinpoint regression analysis of age-standardized incidence rates was used to estimate the annual percent change (APC) and 95 % confidence intervals. Results are presented overall and by sex, age groups (0–34, 35–54, 55–64, 65–74, ≥75 years) and histologic subtypes.

Results

Temporal trends of incidence rates by sex, over the period 1985–2012, showed a distinct pattern. A significant change point of the trend was observed in males in 1994 (APC: +2.5 %; 95 % CI 0.7–4.4 from 1985 to 1994 and −1.4 %; 95 % CI −2.0 to −0.7 from 1994 onward). This general change was mainly caused by the age group 65–74 years and by the higher incidence of squamous cell carcinoma histologic subtype. In females, lung cancer incidence increased over the entire study period by +4.2 % per year (95 % CI 3.1–5.4); this trend was mainly caused by the age group 55–64 years (APC = +7 %) and by adenocarcinoma incidence between women (APC = +6.8 %).

Conclusion

Male lung cancer incidence rates have decreased in Granada, while female rates have increased overall especially in younger women. These trends may reflect the increased consumption of cigarettes in women, especially during younger ages. Lung cancer prevention through tobacco control policies are therefore of utmost importance.

Keywords

Lung cancer Incidence Trends Histologic types Sex differences Population-based study 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study has been approved by the provincial Biomedical Research Ethics Committee and has therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. For this type of study, formal consent is not required. Details that might disclose the identity of the subjects under study have been omitted.

References

  1. 1.
    Brambilla E, Travis WD. Lung cancer. In: Stewart BW, Wild CP, editors. World cancer report. Lyon: World Health Organization; 2014.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer. 2010;127(12):2893–917.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, Rosso S, Coebergh JW, Comber H, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: estimates for 40 countries in 2012. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:1374–403.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Steliarova-Foucher E, O’callaghan M, Ferlay J, Masuyer E, Forman D, Comber H, et al. European cancer Observatory: cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence and survival in Europe. Version 1.0 (September 2012). European Network of Cancer Registries. International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2012. http://cco.iarc.fr.
  5. 5.
    Sánchez MJ, Payer T, De Angelis R, Larrañaga N, Capocaccia R, Martinez C. Cancer incidence and mortality in Spain: estimates and projections for the period 1981–2012. Ann Oncol: ESMO. 2010;21 Suppl 3(Supplement 3):iii30–6.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pesch B, Kendzia B, Gustavsson P, Jöckel KH, Johnen G, Pohlabeln H, et al. Cigarette smoking and lung cancer–relative risk estimates for the major histological types from a pooled analysis of case-control studies. Int J Cancer. 2012;131(5):1210–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ridge CA, McErlean AM, Ginsberg MS. Epidemiology of lung cancer. Semin Intervent Radiol. 2013;30(2):93–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Remon J, Molina-Montes E, Majem M, Lianes P, Isla D, Garrido P, et al. Lung cancer in women: an overview with special focus on Spanish women. Clin Transl Oncol. 2014;16:517–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fernandez E, Schiaffino A, Borràs JM, Shafey O, Villalbí JR, La Vecchia C. Prevalence of cigarette smoking by birth cohort among males and females in Spain 1010–1990. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2003;12:57–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Radzikowska E, Glaz P, Roszkowski K. Lung cancer in women: age, smoking, histology, performance status, stage, initial treatment and survival. Population based study of 20561 cases. Ann Oncol. 2002;13(13):1087–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thun MJ, Lally CA, Flannery JT, Calle EE, Flanders WD, Heath CW Jr. Cigarette smoking and changes in the histopathology of lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89:1580–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Salmerón D, Chirlaque MD, Izarzugaza MI, Sánchez MJ, Marcos-Gragera R, Ardanaz E, et al. Lung cancer prognosis in Spain: the role of histology, age and sex. Respir Med. 2012;106:1301–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Devesa SS, Bray F, Vizcaino AP, Parkin DM. International lung cancer trends by histologic type: male: female differences diminishing and adenocarcinoma rates rising. Int J Cancer. 2005;117(2):294–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Toyoda Y, Nakayama T, Ioka A, Tsukuma H. Trends in lung cancer incidence by histological type in Osaka, Japan. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2008;38:534–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Keohavong P, De Michele MA, Melacrinos AC, Landreneau RJ, Weyant RJ, Siegfried JM. Detection of K-ras mutations in lung carcinomas: relationship to prognosis. Clin Cancer Res. 1996;2:411–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    World Health Organization (WHO). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th Revision. ICD-10 WHO; version 2015. http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2015/en#/C30-C39.
  17. 17.
    Fritz A, Percy C, Jack A, Shanmugaratnam K, Sobin L, Parkin DM, et al., editors. International classification of diseases for oncology. 3rd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Percy C, Van Holten V, Muir C, editors. International classification of diseases for oncology. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1990.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Travis WD, Brambilla E, Muller-Hermelink HK, Harris CC, editors. World Health Organization classification of tumours. pathology and genetics of tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart. Lyon: IARC Press; 2004.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bray FI, Weiderpass E. Lung cancer mortality trends in 36 European countries: secular trends and birth cohort patterns by sex and region 1970–2007. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:1454–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    De la Cruz CS, Tanoue LT, Matthay RA. Lung cancer: epidemiology, etiology, and prevention. Clin Chest Med. 2011;32(4):605–44. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2011.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bosetti C, Malvezzi M, Rosso T, Bertuccio P, Gallus S, Chatenoud L, et al. Lung cancer mortality in European women: trends and predictions. Lung Cancer. 2012;78:171–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Levi F, Bosetti C, Fernandez E, Hill C, Lucchini F, Negri E, et al. Trends in lung cancer among young European women: the rising epidemic in France and Spain. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:462–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    La Vecchia C, Bosetti C, Lucchini F, Bertuccio P, Negri E, Boyle P, et al. Cancer mortality in Europe, 2000–2004, and an overview of trends since 1975. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:1323–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lortet-Tieulent J, Soerjomataram I, Ferlay J, Rutherford M, Weiderpass E, Bray F. International trends in lung cancer incidence by histological subtype: adenocarcinoma stabilizing in men but still increasing in women. Lung Cancer. 2014;84(1):13–22. doi: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2014.01.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jemal A, Travis WD, Tarone RE, Travis L, Devesa SS. Lung cancer rates convergence in young men and women in the United States: analysis by birth cohortand histologic type. Int J Cancer. 2003;105:101–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Everatt R, Kuzmickiene I, Senulis A. Cigarette smoking and trends in lung cancer incidence in Lithuania: an analysis by histological type. Medicina (Kaunas). 2011;47:222–9.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Patel JD, Bach PB, Kris MG. Lung cancer in US women: a contemporary epidemic. JAMA. 2004;291(14):1763–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thun MJ, Henley SJ, Burns D, Jemal A, Shanks TG, Calle EE. Lung cancer death rate in lifelong nonsmokers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98:691–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Patel JD. Lung cancer in women. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:3212–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Linares
    • 1
    Email author
  • E. Molina-Portillo
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • J. Expósito
    • 1
  • J. A. Baeyens
    • 6
    • 7
  • C. Suárez
    • 8
  • M. J. Sánchez
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Radiotherapy and Oncology DepartmentUniversity Hospital Complex of GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Andalusian School of Public HealthBiosanitary Investigation Institute ibsGranadaSpain
  3. 3.University Hospital Complex of Granada/University of GranadaGranadaSpain
  4. 4.Public Health and Epidemiology CIBER (CIBERESP)MadridSpain
  5. 5.Campus Universitario de CartujaGranadaSpain
  6. 6.La Chana Health Centre, Granada Health DistrictGranadaSpain
  7. 7.GranadaSpain
  8. 8.Physical Therapy DepartmentUniversity of SevilleSevilleSpain

Personalised recommendations