Genome Investigation of a Cariogenic Pathogen with Implications in Cardiovascular Diseases

  • Srinivasan Sujitha
  • Udayakumar S. Vishnu
  • Raman Karthikeyan
  • Jagadesan Sankarasubramanian
  • Paramasamy Gunasekaran
  • Jeyaprakash RajendhranEmail author
Original Research article


The proportion of people suffering from cardiovascular diseases has risen by 34% in the last 15 years in India. Cardiomyopathy is among the many forms of CVD s present. Infection of heart muscles is the suspected etiological agent for the same. Oral pathogens gaining entry into the bloodstream are responsible for such infections. Streptococcus mutans is an oral pathogen with implications in cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have shown certain strains of S. mutans are found predominantly within atherosclerotic plaques and extirpated valves. To decipher the genetic differences responsible for endothelial cell invasion, we have sequenced the genome of Streptococcus mutans B14. Pan-genome analysis, search for adhesion proteins through a special algorithm, and protein–protein interactions search through HPIDB have been done. Pan-genome analysis of 187 whole genomes, assemblies revealed 6965 genes in total and 918 genes forming the core gene cluster. Adhesion to the endothelial cell is a critical virulence factor distinguishing virulent and non-virulent strains. Overall, 4% of the total proteins in S. mutans B14 were categorized as adhesion proteins. Protein–protein interaction between putative adhesion proteins and Human extracellular matrix components was predicted, revealing novel interactions. A conserved gene catalyzing the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids in S. mutans B14 shows possible interaction with isoforms of cathepsin protein of the ECM. This genome sequence analysis indicates towards other proteins in the S. mutans genome, which might have a specific role to play in host cell interaction.


S. mutans B14 Endothelial cell Adhesion proteins Extracellular matrix components (ECM) 



Srinivasan Sujitha acknowledges the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi for providing Junior and Senior Research Fellowship (09/201/0411/2014-EMR-I). Authors also acknowledge the UGC-CAS, NRCBS, DBT-IPLS, and DST-PURSE Programs of the School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, for the facilities provided for sequencing of the genome.

Author Contributions

PG and JR designed the study. SS, USV, and RK performed genome sequencing. SS and JS analyzed the genome sequence.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interests in the publication of this manuscript.

Human and animal rights

This study does not contain the involvement of human subjects or animals, and no experiments have been performed by any of the authors on either human subjects or animals.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Srinivasan Sujitha
    • 1
  • Udayakumar S. Vishnu
    • 1
  • Raman Karthikeyan
    • 1
  • Jagadesan Sankarasubramanian
    • 1
  • Paramasamy Gunasekaran
    • 2
  • Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Genetics, School of Biological SciencesMadurai Kamaraj UniversityMaduraiIndia
  2. 2.VIT Bhopal UniversityBhopalIndia

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