In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Phlorotannins from Edible Brown Algae, Eisenia bicyclis Against Streptomycin-Resistant Listeria monocytogenes


Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is an important food borne pathogen responsible for listeriosis. Further, LM is an etiological agent associated with life threatening conditions like meningitis and encephalitis. Biofilm forming and drug resistant LM may potentially become difficult to treat infections and hence effective controlling measures are required to prevent LM infections. In view of this, the present study evaluated an anti-listerial potential of edible brown seaweed, Eisenia bicyclis, by disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The results of the present study suggested that the anti-listerial activity of various phlorotannins isolated form E. bicyclis were in the range of 16–256 µg/ml. Among the phlorotannins isolated, fucofuroeckol-A (FAA) exhibited the highest anti-listerial potential (MIC range 16–32 µg/ml) against LM strains tested. Further, in checker board synergy assays, FFA-streptomycin combination exhibited significant synergy (fractional inhibitory concentration index, ∑FIC < 0.5) against aminoglycoside resistant clinical strains of LM. The results of the present study suggested the potential use of edible seaweed E. bicyclis as a source of natural phlorotannins to control food borne pathogenic infections.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Chen BY, Pyla R, Kim TJ, Silva JL, Jung YS (2010) Antibiotic resistance in Listeria species isolated from catfish fillets and processing environment. Lett Appl Microbiol 50:626–632.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Somers EB, Wong AC (2004) Efficacy of two cleaning and sanitizing combination on Listeria monocytogenes biofilms formed at low temperature on a variety of materials in the presence of ready-to-eat meat residue. J Food Prot 67:2218–2229.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Founour LL, Founou RC, Essack SY (2016) Antibiotic resistance in food chain: a developing country prospective. Front Microbiol 7:1881.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Jung HA, Jin SE, Ahn BR, Lee CM, Choi JS (2013) Anti-inflammatory activity of edible brown alga Eisenia bicyclis and its constituents fucosterol and phlorotannins in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Food Chem Toxicol 59:199–206.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Gupta S, Abu-Ghannam N (2011) Bioactive potential and possible health effects of edible brown seaweeds. Trends Food Sci Technol 22:315–326.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Eom SH, Lee SH, Yoon NY, JungWK Jeon YJ, Kim SK, Lee MS, Kim YM (2012) α-glucosidase-and α-amylase-inhibitory activities of phlorotannins from Eisenia bicyclis. J Sci Food Agric 92:2084–2090.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (2012) Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; Approved Standard-Ninth Edition. CLSI document M07–A9. CLSI, Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA

  8. 8.

    Odds FC (2003) Synergy, antagonism, and what the checker board puts between them. J Antimicrob Chemother 52:1.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Cox S, Abu-Ghannam N, Gupta S (2010) An assessment of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of six species of edible Irish seaweeds. Int Food Res J 17:205–220.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Nhimiyumukiza O, Kang SK, Kim HJ, Lee EH, Han HN, Kim Y, Kim D, Kim JH, Eom SH, Kim YM (2014) Synergistic Antibacterial activity of Ecklonia cava (Phaeophyceae: Laminariales) against Listeria monocytogenes (Bacillales: Listeriaceae). Fish Aquat Sci 18:1–6.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Lee SH, Li Y, Karadeniz F, Kim MM, Kim SK (2009) α-Glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of phloroglucinol derivatives from edible marine brown alga. J Sci Food Agric 89:1552–1558.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Martínez JH, Castañeda HG (2013) Preparation and chromatographic analysis of phlorotannins. J Chromat Sci 51:825–838.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Nagayama K, Iwamura Y, Shibata T, Izumi Hirayama, Nakamura T (2002) Bactericidal activity of phlorotannins from the brown alga Ecklonia kurome. J Antimicrob Chemother 50:889–893.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Lee JH, Eom SH, Lee EH, Jung YJ, Kim HJ, Jo MR, Son KT, Lee HJ, Kim JH, Lee MS, Kim YM (2014) In vitro antibacterial and synergistic effect of phlorotannins isolated from edible brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis against acne-related bacteria. Algae 29:47–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Walsh D, Duffy G, Sheridan JJ, Blair IS, McDowell DA (2001) Antibiotic resistance among Listeria, including Listeria monocytogenes, in retail foods. J Appl Microbiol 90:517–522.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Rangel-Vega A, Bernstein LR, Mandujano-Tinoco EA, García-Contreras SJ, García-Contreras R (2015) Drug repurposing as an alternative for the treatment of recalcitrant bacterial infections. Front Microbiol 6:282.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Choi JG, Kang OK, Brice OO, Lee YS, Chae HS, Oh YC, Sohn DH, Park Y, Choi HG, Kim SG, Shin DW, Kwon DY (2010) Antibacterial activity of Ecklonia cava against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. Foodborne Path Dis 7:435–441.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Eom SH, Lee DS, Jung YJ, Park JH, Choi JI, Yim MJ, Jeon JM, Kim HW, Son KT, Je JY, Lee MS, Kim YM (2014) The mechanism of antibacterial activity of phlorofucofuroeckol-A against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:9795–9804.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


This research was supported by Marine Biotechnology Program (20150220) funded by Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Republic of Korea. The pathogens for this study were provided by the Gyeongsang National University Hospital Branch of National Culture Collection for Pathogens (GNUH-NCCP).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Young-Mog Kim.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest


Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 96 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kim, HJ., Dasagrandhi, C., Kim, SH. et al. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Phlorotannins from Edible Brown Algae, Eisenia bicyclis Against Streptomycin-Resistant Listeria monocytogenes . Indian J Microbiol 58, 105–108 (2018).

Download citation


  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Anti-listerial agents
  • Eisenia bicyclis
  • Phlorotannins