Indian Journal of Microbiology

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 175–183 | Cite as

Essential Oils, Silver Nanoparticles and Propolis as Alternative Agents Against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei Clinical Isolates

  • Piotr Szweda
  • Katarzyna Gucwa
  • Ewelina Kurzyk
  • Ewa Romanowska
  • Katarzyna Dzierżanowska-Fangrat
  • Anna Zielińska Jurek
  • Piotr Marek Kuś
  • Sławomir Milewski
Original Article


Development of effective and safe therapeutic treatment of fungal infections remains one of the major challenge for modern medicine. The aim of presented investigation was to analyze the in vitro antifungal activity of selected essential oils, ethanolic extracts of propolis and silver nanoparticles dropped on TiO2 against azole-resistant C. albicans (n = 20), C. glabrata (n = 14) and C. krusei (n = 10) clinical isolates. Among tested essential oils, the highest activity has definitely been found in the case of the oil isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, with MIC and MFC values for all tested strains in the range of 0.0006–0.0097 % (v/v) and 0.0012–0.019 % (v/v), respectively. High activity was also observed for the Lemon, Basil, Thyme, Geranium and Clove (from buds) essential oils. Significant differences in fungicidal activity have been observed in the case of four tested propolis samples. Only one of them revealed high activity, with MFC values in the range from 0.156 to 1.25 % (v/v). Satisfactory fungicidal activity, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates, was also observed in the case of silver nanoparticles, however C. krusei isolates were mostly resistant. We also revealed that constituents of most of essential oils and propolis as well as silver nanoparticles are not substrates for drug transporters, which belong to the most important factors affecting resistance of Candida spp. clinical isolates to many of conventional antimycotics. To conclude, the results of our investigation revealed that essential oils, propolis and silver nanoparticles represent high potential for controlling and prevention candidiasis.


Candida albicans Candida glabrata Candida krusei Essential oils Propolis Silver nanoparticles 



This research was supported by the grant no N N405 151040 from the National Science Centre in Poland. The authors are also grateful to Teresa Tanczyk, from Pollena-Aroma and Marta Schielmann from Gdansk University of Technology, for their help in preparing the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

Authors do not declare any conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Piotr Szweda
    • 1
  • Katarzyna Gucwa
    • 1
  • Ewelina Kurzyk
    • 5
  • Ewa Romanowska
    • 2
  • Katarzyna Dzierżanowska-Fangrat
    • 2
  • Anna Zielińska Jurek
    • 3
  • Piotr Marek Kuś
    • 4
  • Sławomir Milewski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry, Faculty of ChemistryGdansk University of TechnologyGdanskPoland
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Microbiology and ImmunologyThe Children’s Memorial Health InstituteWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of ChemistryGdansk University of TechnologyGdanskPoland
  4. 4.Department of PharmacognosyWroclaw Medical UniversityWroclawPoland
  5. 5.Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Microbiology, Faculty of ChemistryGdansk University of TechnologyGdanskPoland

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