Indian Journal of Microbiology

, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp 413–418 | Cite as

Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria from Cow Dung Based Biodynamic Preparations

  • T. K. Radha
  • D. L. N. Rao
Original Article


Indigenous formulations based on cow dung fermentation are commonly used in organic farming. Three biodynamic preparations viz., Panchagavya (PG), BD500 and ‘Cow pat pit’ (CPP) showed high counts of lactobacilli (109 ml−1) and yeasts (104 ml−1). Actinomycetes were present only in CPP (104 ml−1) and absent in the other two. Seven bacterial isolates from these ferments were identified by a polyphasic approach: Bacillus safensis (PG1), Bacillus cereus (PG2, PG4 PG5), Bacillus subtilis (BD2) Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (BD3) and Bacillus licheniformis (CPP1). This is the first report of L. xylanilyticus and B. licheniformis in biodynamic preparations. Only three carbon sources—dextrose, sucrose and trehalose out of 21 tested were utilized by all the bacteria. None could utilize arabinose, dulcitol, galactose, inositol, inulin, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose and sorbitol. All the strains produced indole acetic acid (1.8–3.7 μg ml−1 culture filtrate) and ammonia. None could fix nitrogen; but all except B. safensis and B. licheniformis could solubilize phosphorous from insoluble tri-calcium phosphate. All the strains except L. xylaniliticus exhibited antagonism to the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia bataticola whereas none could inhibit Sclerotium rolfsi. In green house experiment in soil microcosms, bacterial inoculation significantly promoted growth of maize; plant dry weight increased by ~21 % due to inoculation with B. cereus (PG2). Results provide a basis for understanding the beneficial effects of biodynamic preparations and industrial deployment of the strains.


Bacillus spp. Biofertilizer BD500 Cow pat pit Fermentation Lysinibacillus sp. Panchagavya 



We thank Dr. P. Ramesh, Sr. Scientist, Network Project on Organic Farming, IISS, Bhopal for supplying the biodynamic preparations.

Supplementary material

12088_2014_468_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 kb)


  1. 1.
    Somasundaram E, Amanullah MM, Vaiyapuri K, Thirukkumaran K, Sathyamoorthi K (2007) Influence of organic sources of nutrients on the yield and economics of crops under maize based cropping system. J Appl Sci Res 3:1774–1777Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rupela OP, Gopalakrishnan S, Krajewski M, Sriveni M (2003) A novel method for the identification and enumeration of microorganisms with potential for suppressing fungal plant pathogens. Biol Fertil Soils 39:131–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stalin V, Perumal K, Stanley Abraham L, Kalaichelvan PT (2010) Screening and production of subtilin from Bacillus subtilis isolated from nutrient-rich organic and biodynamic manures. IUP J Life Sci 4:34–44Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carpenter-Boggs L, Reganold JP, Kennedy AC (2000) Biodynamic preparations: short term effect on crops, soils, and weed populations. Am J Altern Agric 15:110–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Raupp J, Koenig UJ (1996) Biodynamic preparations cause opposite yield effects depending upon yield levels. Biol Agric Hortic 13:175–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Swain MR, Ray RC (2009) Biocontrol and other beneficial activities of Bacillus subtilis isolated from cowdung microflora. Microbiol Res 164:121–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Giannattasio M, Vendramin E, Fornasier F, Alberghini S, Zanardo M, Stellin F, Concheri G, Stevanato P, Ertani A, Nardi S, Rizzi V, Piffanelli P, Spaccini R, Mazzei P, Piccolo A, Squartini A (2013) Microbiological features and bioactivity of a fermented manure product (preparation 500) used in biodynamic agriculture. J Microbiol Biotech 23:644–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Naik Nagaraj, Sreenivasa MN (2009) Influence of bacteria isolated from Panchagavya on seed germination and seed vigour in wheat. Karnataka J Agric Sci 22:23–231Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Suresh Kumar R, Ganesh P, Tharmaraj K, Saranraj P (2011) Growth and development of blackgram (Vigna mungo) under foliar application of Panchagavya as organic source of nutrient. Curr Bot 2:9–11Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cappuccino JG, Sherman N (2004) Microbiology: a laboratory manual, 6th edn. Pearson education, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bric JM, Bostock RM, Silverstone SE (1991) Rapid in situ assay for indole acetic acid production by bacteria immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:535–538PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schwyn B, Neilands JB (1987) Universal assay for the detection and determination of siderophores. Anal Biochem 160:47–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jacobson CB, Pasternak JJ, Glick BR (1994) Partial purification and characterization of ACC deaminase from plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida GR 12-2. Can J Microbiol 40:1019–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Solaiappan AR (2002) Microbiological Studies in Panchagavya. Bio-control Laboratory, Chengalput, pp 1–2Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Crielly EM, Logan NA, Anderton A (1994) Studies on the Bacillus flora of milk and milk products. J Appl Microbiol 77:256–263Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Girija D, Deepa K, Xavier F, Antony I, Shidhi PR (2013) Analysis of cow dung microbiota—a metagenomic approach. Indian J Biotech 12:372–378Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee CS, Jung YT, Park S, Oh TK, Yoon JH (2010) Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus sp. nov., a xylan degrading bacterium isolated from forest humus. Int J Syst Envol Microbiol 60:281–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Collins CH, Lyne PM (1976) Microbiological methods, 4th edn. Butterworths, Guildford, pp 434–448Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vyletelova M, Svec P, Pacova Z, Sedlacek I, Roubal P (2002) Occurence of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis strains in the course of UHT milk production. Czech J Anim Sci 47:200–205Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Satomi M, La Duc MT, Venkateswaran K (2006) Bacillus safensis spp. nov., isolated from spacecraft and assembly-facility surfaces. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:1735–1740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maheswar NU, Sathiyavani G (2012) Solubilization of phosphate by Bacillus spp. from groundnut rhizosphere (Arachis hypogaea L). J Chem Pharm Res 4:4007–4011Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sreenivasa MN, Naik Nagaraj, Bhat SN (2009) Beejamrutha: a source for beneficial bacteria. Karnataka J Agric Sci 22:1038–1040Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Glick BR (1995) The enhancement of plant growth by free living bacteria. Can J Microbiol 41:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Idris EE, Iglesias DJ, Talon M, Borriss R (2007) Tryptophan-dependent production of indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) affects level of plant growth promotion by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 20:619–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gutierrez-Manero FJ, Ramos B, Probanza A, Mehouachi J, Talon M (2001) The plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis produce high amounts of physiologically active gibberelins. Physiol Plant 111:206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Soil ScienceBhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations