Indian Journal of Microbiology

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 384–389 | Cite as

Response of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grown Conventionally and on Beds in a Sandy Loam Soil

  • Mahaveer P. Sharma
  • Ubbara Gangi Reddy
  • Alok Adholeya
Original Article

Abstract

The present study was undertaken to assess the benefit and compare the functioning of AM fungi on wheat grown conventionally and on beds. Ten treatment combinations were used, treatments 1 and 2: no fertilizers with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (In vitro produced Glomus intraradices); 3:100% of recommended NPK: (120 kg ha−1 N; 60 kg ha−1 P; 50 kg ha−1 K), and 4 and 5: 75% of recommended NPK dose with and without AM inoculation in a 5 × 2 split-plot design on wheat using conventional/flat system and elevated/raised bed system. The maximum grain yield (3.84 t ha−1) was obtained in AM fungi inoculated plots of raised bed system applied with 75% NPK and was found higher (although non- significant) than the conventional (3.73 t ha−1) system. The AM inoculation at 75% fertilizer application can save 8.47, 5.38 kg P and 16.95, 10.75 kg N ha−1, respectively, in bed and conventional system. While comparing the yield response with 100% fertilizer application alone, AM inoculation was found to save 20.30, 15.79 kg P and 40.60, 31.59 kg N ha−1, respectively, in beds and conventional system. Mycorrhizal inoculation at 75% NPK application particularly in raised bed system seems to be more efficient in saving fertilizer inputs and utilizing P for producing higher yield and growth unlike non-mycorrhizal plants of 100% P. Besides the yield, mycorrhizal plants grown on beds had higher AM root colonization, soil dehydrogenases activity, and P-uptake. The present study indicates that the inoculation of AM fungi to wheat under raised beds is better response (although non-significantly higher) to conventional system and could be adopted for achieving higher yield of wheat at reduced fertilizer inputs after field validation.

Keywords

Arbuscular mycorrhiza Cultivation systems Triticum aestivum Field response 

References

  1. 1.
    Duxbury JM, Abrol IP, Gupta RK, Bronson KF (2000) Analysis of long-term soil fertility experiments with rice-wheat rotations in South Asia. In: Abrol IP et al (eds) Long-term soil fertility experiments with rice-wheat rotations in South Asia. Rice- Wheat Consortium Paper Series No. 6. Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, New Delhi, pp 7–22Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sayre KD, Hobbes PR (2004) The raised bed system of cultivation for irrigated production conditions. In: Lal R, Hobbs P, Uphoff N, Hansen DO (eds) Sustainable agriculture and the rice-wheat system. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sayre KD, Moreno Ramos OH (1997) Application of raised bed-planting system to wheat. Wheat special report no. 31. CIMMYT, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Connor DJ, Timsina J, Humphreys E (2003) Prospects for permanent beds for the rice-wheat system. Improving the productivity and Sustainability of rice-wheat systems: issues and impacts, vol 65. ASA Special Publication, Madison, pp 197–210Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Höflich G, Tauschke M, Kühn G, Werner K, Frielinghaus M, Höhn W (1994) Influence of long-term conservation tillage on soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. Biol Fertil Soils 29:81–86Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Balota EL, Colozzi-Filho A, Andrade DS, Dick RP (2003) Microbial biomass in soils under different tillage and cop rotation systems. Biol Fert Soils 38:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Runion GB, Prior SA, Reeves DW, Rogers HH, Reicosky DC, Peacock AD, White DC (2004) Microbial responses to wheel-traffic in conventional and no-tillage systems. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 35:2891–2903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wright SF, Upadhyaya A (1998) A survey of soils for aggregate stability and glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 198:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Plenchette C, Clermont-Dauphin C, Meynard JM, Fortin JA (2005) Managing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in cropping systems. Can J Plant Sci 85:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Al-Karaki G, McMichael B, Zak J (2004) Field response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress. Mycorrhiza 14:263–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mäder P, Edenhofer S, Boller T, Wiemken A, Niggli U (2000) Arbuscular mycorrhizae in a long-term field trial comparing low-input (organic, biological) and high-input (conventional) farming systems in a crop rotation. Biol Fertil Soils 31:150–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oehl F, Sieverding E, Mäder P, Dubois D, Ineichen K, Boller T, Wiemken A (2004) Impact of long-term conventional and organic farming on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Oecologia 138:574–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goss MJ, de Varennes A (2002) Soil disturbance reduces the efficacy of mycorrhizal associations for early soybean growth and N-2 fixation. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1167–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS, Dean LA (1954) Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with Sodium bicarbonate. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (Circular 939)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Datta NP, Khera MS, Saini TR (1962) A rapid calorimetric procedure for the determination of the organic carbon in soils. J Ind Soc Soil Sci 10:67–74Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gerdemann JW, Nicolson TH (1963) Spores of mycorrhizal Endogone species extracted by wet sieving and decanting. Trans Br Mycol Soc 46:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hanway JJ, Heidel H (1952) Soil analysis methods as used in Iowa State College Soil Testing Laboratory. Iowa Agric 57:1–31Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jackson ML (1973) Soil chemical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sharma MP, Gaur A, Bhatia NP, Adholeya A (1996) Growth responses and dependence of Acacia nilotica var. cupriciformis on the indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal consortium of a marginal wasteland soil. Mycorrhiza 6:441–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gaur A, Adholeya A, Mukerji KG (1998) A comparison of AM fungi inoculants using Capsicum and Polianthes in marginal soil amended with organic matter. Mycorrhiza 7:307–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kitson R, Mellon MG (1944) Colorimetric determination of phosphorus as molybdivanado phosphoric acid. Indian Engl Chem Anal Ed 16:379–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Phillips SJM, Hayman DS (1970) Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Trans Br Mycol Soc 55:158–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Biermann B, Linderman RG (1981) Quantifying vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae: proposed method towards standardization. New Phytol 87:63–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cassida LE (1977) Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determination. Appl Environ Microbiol 34:630–636Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    SAS Institute Inc. (1991) SAS/STAT User’s Guide, release 6.03. SAS Institute Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tripathi SC, Monga AD, Chauhan DS, Sharma RK, Kharub AS, Chhokar RS, Shoren J (2004) Bed planting: a new technique to diversify/intensify rice-wheat system in India. In: New directions for a diverse planet: proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jeffries P, Gianinazzi S, Perotto K, Barea JM (2003) The contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in sustainable maintenance of plant health and soil fertility. Biol Fert Soils 37:1–16Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Castillo CG, Rubio R, Rouanet JL, Borie F (2006) Early effects of tillage and crop rotation on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal propagules in an Ultisol. Biol Fertil Soils 43:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hossain MI, Meisner CA, Duxbury JM, Lauren JG, Rahman MM, Meer MM, Rashid MH (2004) Use of raised beds for increasing wheat production in rice-wheat cropping systems. In: New directions for a diverse planet: proceedings of the 4th international crop science Congress Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Plenchette C, Morel C (1996) External phosphorus requirement of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal barley and soybean plants. Biol Fertil Soils 21:303–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Roldán A, Salinas-García JR, Alguacil MM, Díaz E, Caravaca F (2005) Soil enzyme activities suggest advantages of conservation tillage practices in sorghum cultivation under subtropical conditions. Geoderma 129:178–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hetrick BAD, Wilson GWT, Cox TS (1993) Mycorrhizal dependence of modern wheat cultivars and ancestors: a synthesis. Can J Bot 71:512–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Anjum T, Javaid A, Shah MBM (2006) Correlation between plant growth and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in some rainy season grasses. Pak J Bot 38:843–849Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Covacevich F, Echeverrı HE, Aguirrezabal LAN (2007) Soil available phosphorus status determines indigenous mycorrhizal colonization of field and glasshouse-grown spring wheat from Argentina. Appl Soil Ecol 35:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahaveer P. Sharma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ubbara Gangi Reddy
    • 1
    • 3
  • Alok Adholeya
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Mycorrhizal ResearchThe Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Microbiology SectionDirectorate of Soybean Research (DSR, Indore-ICAR)IndoreIndia
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK

Personalised recommendations