Indian Journal of Microbiology

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 35–40 | Cite as

Biodegradation and bioremediation of pesticide in soil: concept, method and recent developments

  • Dileep K. SinghEmail author


Biodegradation is a natural process, where the degradation of a xenobiotic chemical or pesticide by an organism is primarily a strategy for their own survival. Most of these microbes work in natural environment but some modifications can be brought about to encourage the organisms to degrade the pesticide at a faster rate in a limited time frame. This capability of microbe is some times utilized as technology for removal of contaminant from actual site. Knowledge of physiology, biochemistry and genetics of the desired microbe may further enhance the microbial process to achieve bioremediation with precision and with limited or no scope for uncertainty and variability in microbe functioning. Gene encoding for enzyme has been identified for several pesticides, which will provide a new inputs in understanding the microbial capability to degrade a pesticide and develop a super strain to achieve the desired result of bioremediation in a short time.


Biodegradation Bioremediation Pesticide 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Stotzky G, Goos RD and Timonin MI (1962) Microbial changes occurring in soil as result of storage. Plant Soil 16: 1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burn RG (1988) Experimental models in study of soil microbiology. In: Hand Book of Laboratory model systems for Microbial Ecosystems (J W T Wimpeny ed). CRC Press Boca Raton, Florida pp 51–98Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hong Q, Zhang Z, Hong Y and Li S (2007) A microcosum study on bioremediation of fenitrothion-contaminated soil using Burkholderia sp. FDS-1. In Bioremediation Biodegradation 59:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kumar M and Philip L (2006) Bioremediation of endosulfan contaminated soil and water-optimization of operating conditions in laboratory scale reactors. J Hazardous Materials 136:354–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Henry L and Kishimba MA (2006) Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Environ Pollut 140:348–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kumar M and Philip L (2006) Enrichment and isolation of a mixed bacterial culture for complete mineralization of endosulfan. J Environ Sci Health B 41:81–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kumar M and Philip L (2006) Endosulfan mineralization by bacterial isolates and possible degradation pathway identification. Bioremediation J 10:179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kumar K, Devi SS, Krishnamurthi K, Kanade GS and Chakrabarti T (2007) Enrichment and isolation of endosulfan degrading and detoxifying bacteria. Chemosphere 68:497–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gupta KG, Sud RK, Aggarwal PK and Aggarwal JC (1975) Effect of baygon (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamateon some biological process and degradation by a Pseudomonas sps. Plant Soil 42:317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karns JS, Mulbry WW, Nelson JO and Kearney PC (1986) Metabolism of Carbofuran by pure bacterial culture. Pest Biochem Physiol 25:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Larkin MJ and Day MJ (1986) Metabolism of carbaryl by three bacterial isolates, Pseudomonas sps. (NCIB 12042 and 12043), Rhodococcus sp (NCIB 12038) from garden soil. J Appl Bacteriol 60:233–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chaudhry GR and Ali AN (1988) Bacterial metabolism of carbofuran. Appl Environ Microbiol 54:1414–1419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chapalmadugu S and Chaudhry GR (1991) Hydrolysis of Carbaryl by Pseudomonas sps. And construction of microbial consoritum that completely metabolised carbaryl. Appl Environm Microbiol 57:744–750Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mulbry WW and Eaton RE (1991) Purification and characterization of the N-methylcarbamate hydrolase from Pseudomonas strain OK. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:3679–3682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Head IM, Cain RB and Suett DL (1992) Characterization of carbofuran degrading bacterium and investigation of the role of plasmids in catabolism of the insecticide carbofuran. Arch Microbiol 158:302–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Topp E, Hansen RS, Ringleberg DB, White DC and Wheatcroft R (1993) Isolation and characterization of an n-methylcarbamate insecticide degrading methylotrophic bacterium. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:3339–3349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kearney PC and Roberts T (1998) In: Pesticide remediation in soil and water (Kearney PC and Roberts T eds) Wiley series in agrochemical and plant protection. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kumari R, Subudhi S, Suar M, Dhingra G, Raina V, Dogra C, Lal S, Meer JR, Holliger C and Lal R (2002) Cloning and Characterization of lin Genes Responsible for the Degradation of Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers by Sphingomonas paucimobilis Strain B90. Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 6021–6028PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sutherland TD, Home I, Harcourt RL, Russel RJ and Oakeshott JG (2002) Isolation and characterization of a Mycobacterium strain that metabolizes the insecticide endosulfan. J Appl Microbiol 93:380–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hussain S, Arshad M, Saleem M and Khalid A (2007) Biodegradation of α and β endosulfan by soil bacteria. Biodegradation 18:731–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barraga n-Huerta BE, Costa-Pe’rez C, Peralta-Cruz j and Barrera-Corte J (2007) Biodegration of organochlorine pesticides by bacteria grown in microniches of the porus structure of green bean coffee. In Biodeterioration Biodegradation 59:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Subhas and Singh DK (2003) Utilization of monocrotophos as phosphorus source by Pseudomonas aeruginosa F10B and Clavibacter michiganense subsp. insidiosum SBL 11 Canad J of Microbiol 49:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Das S and Singh DK (2006) Purification and characterization of phosphotriesterases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa F10B and Clavibacter michiganense subsp. insidiosum SBL11. Canad J of Microbiol 52:157–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Weir KM, Sutherland TD, Horne I, Russell RJ and Oakeshott JG (2006) A Single Monooxygenase, Ese, Is Involved in the Metabolism of the Organochlorides Endosulfan and Endosulfate in an Arthrobacter sp. Appl Environ Microbiol 72: 3524–3530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lal R, Dogra C, Malhotra S, Sharma P and Pal R (2006) Diversity, Distribution and Divergence of lin genes in hexachlorocyclohexane degrading sphingomonads. TRENDS in Biotechnology 24:121–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations